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Women Business and the Law 2016

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GETTING TO EQUAL WOMEN, BUSINESS AND THE LAW 2016 © 2015 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000; Internet: www.worldbank.org Some rights reserved 1 2 3 4 18 17 16 15 This work is a product of the staff of The World Bank with external contributions. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of The World Bank, its Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Nothing herein shall constitute or be considered to be a limitation upon or waiver of the privileges and immunities of The World Bank, all of which are specifically reserved. Rights and Permissions This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 IGO license (CC BY 3.0 IGO) http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/3.0/igo. Under the Creative Commons Attribution license, you are free to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt this work, including for commercial purposes, under the following conditions: Attribution—Please cite the work as follows: World Bank Group. 2015. Women, Business and the Law 2016: Getting to Equal. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-0677-3. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO Translations—If you create a translation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This translation was not created by The World Bank and should not be considered an official World Bank translation. The World Bank shall not be liable for any content or error in this translation. Adaptations—If you create an adaptation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This is an adaptation of an original work by The World Bank. Views and opinions expressed in the adaptation are the sole responsibility of the author or authors of the adaptation and are not endorsed by The World Bank. Third-party content—The World Bank does not necessarily own each component of the content contained within the work. The World Bank therefore does not warrant that the use of any third-party-owned individual component or part contained in the work will not infringe on the rights of those third parties. The risk of claims resulting from such infringement rests solely with you. If you wish to re-use a component of the work, it is your responsibility to determine whether permission is needed for that re-use and to obtain permission from the copyright owner. Examples of components can include, but are not limited to, tables, figures, or images. All queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to the Publishing and Knowledge Division, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2625; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org. ISBN (paper): 978-1-4648-0677-3 ISBN (electronic): 978-1-4648-0678-0 DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-0677-3 Cover design: Corporate Visions GETTING TO EQUAL WOMEN, BUSINESS AND THE LAW 2016 Table of Contents Foreword .............................................................1 1. Key Findings .........................................................2 Highlights from Women, Business and the Law 2016 .......................... 2 What’s new in this edition? ............................................. 2 How common are gender differences in laws? ............................... 3 Why do these gender differences matter? .................................. 4 Where are relationships between women and the law changing? ................. 5 Accessing institutions .................................................. 7 Using property ...................................................... 12 Getting a job ........................................................ 14 Providing incentives to work ............................................ 16 Building credit ....................................................... 17 Going to court ....................................................... 19 Protecting women from violence ......................................... 20 2. About Women, Business and the Law .................................27 3. Summaries of Women, Business and the Law Reforms ..................35 4. Data Notes ..........................................................42 Economy Tables .........................................................73 Acknowledgments ......................................................248 GETTING TO EQUAL Women, Business and the Law 20161 Foreword As societies become more equal and every individual’s productive capacity is valued and engaged, economies become more resilient.To build such a society, the key is inclusiveness—to make sure that no group is kept at the margins and subjected to exploitation. One particular group that deserves special attention, if for no other reason than its constituting half the world’s population, is women. It has often been pointed out that an economy cannot grow to its full potential if its women are not treated on par with men. This is likely true. But even if it were not, there is a case for treating men and women equally. We cannot forever remain victims of the idea that the agenda of inclusion and equality (pertaining not just to women but to any group) has to be justified as a means towards the end of higher economic growth. Indeed, what we need to argue is that, even if we had to sacrifice some economic growth in order to achieve inclusion and greater equality, the trade-off would be well worth it. Fortunately, to the best of our knowledge there is no trade-off. There are plenty of studies that demonstrate how empow- ering women, be it in the market place, the office or the household, increases overall efficiency, well-being and the quality of decision-making. However, despite such studies—and despite the fact that great strides have been made in enabling women to achieve greater potential—in most parts of the world their productive capacity and participation are still restricted, and they continue to be discriminated against and lead diminished lives. While this problem has many dimensions, the focus in this report is on the economy and the workplace. Since its inception in 2009, the World Bank Group’s Women, Business and the Law project has been constructing a unique dataset on laws, regulations and policies that constrain women’s economic choices. The data illuminate how government policies limit women’s full economic participation through laws that restrict their ability to engage in entrepreneurial and employment activities. This edition of Women, Business and the Law highlights the World Bank Group’s commitment to generating objective data and building knowledge about gender equality. The report draws on readily comparable data across seven indica- tors: accessing institutions, using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, going to court and protecting women from violence. It expands data coverage to 30 more economies than the previous edition in order to enhance global understanding of laws that affect women’s economic opportunities. The data reveal the magnitude of the challenge that the world still faces in the quest for gender equality. It seems clear from the evidence that while governments are working progressively to provide equality of opportunity for women, there are still laws that differentiate between women and men in ways that affect women’s economic prospects: of the 173 economies covered, 155 have at least one law that differentiates between women and men. These inequalities impede development, hinder prosperity and undermine national competitiveness. By informing research and policy discussions about the state of women’s economic opportunities and outcomes, this report promotes the cause of inclusion. Our hope is that the report will celebrate the progress that has been made while emphasizing the work still to be done to ensure economic empowerment for all. Kaushik Basu Senior Vice President and Chief Economist The World Bank GETTING TO EQUAL Women, Business and the Law 20162 GETTING TO EQUAL 1. Key Findings Highlights from Women, Business and the Law 2016 %Legal gender differences are widespread: 155 of the 173 economies covered have at least one law impeding wom- en’s economic opportunities. %The total number of legal gender differences across 173 economies is 943. %In 100 economies, women face gender-based job restrictions. %46 of the economies covered have no laws specifically protecting women from domestic violence. %In 18 economies, husbands can legally prevent their wives from working. %Lower legal gender equality is associated with fewer girls attending secondary school relative to boys, fewer women working or running businesses and a wider gender wage gap. %Over the past two years, 65 economies carried out 94 re- forms increasing women’s economic opportunities. What’s new in this edition? Since 2009, Women, Business and the Law has collected data about legal restrictions on women’s entrepreneurship and em- ployment in order to inform policy discussions and promote re- search on the linkages between the law and women’s economic opportunities. Women, Business and the Law 2016: Getting to Equal is the fourth in the series. The data focus on seven indicators: accessing institutions, us- ing property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, going to court, building credit and protecting women from violence. New areas covered within these indicators include legislation on issues such as nondiscrimination in access to credit, care leave for sick relatives, the legal age of marriage and protection orders for victims of domestic violence. This edition covers 173 economies, including 30 economies that were not previously covered: Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belize, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Djibouti, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Grenada, Guyana, Iraq, Luxembourg, Maldives, Malta, Myanmar, Qatar, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, South Sudan, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Swaziland, Timor-Leste, Tonga and Trinidad and Tobago. The previous edition of Women, Business and the Law found that 90% of economies measured had at least one law imped- ing women’s economic opportunities. This still holds true, even though this edition covers over 20% more economies. However, over the past two years, 65 economies achieved 94 reforms increasing women’s economic opportunities. Most of these reforms took place in developing economies, with 19 in Europe and Central Asia, 18 in Sub-Saharan Africa, and 16 in Latin America and the Caribbean. Economies in the Middle East and North Africa had 12 reforms, and those in East Asia and the Pacific had 11 reforms. The fewest reforms—3—were in South Asia. Women, Business and the Law 2016 finds that lower legal gender equality is associated with fewer girls attending second- ary school relative to boys, fewer women working or running businesses, and a wider gender wage gap. Where laws do not provide protection from domestic violence, women are likely to have shorter life spans. But where governments support child- care, women are more likely to receive wages. 3 Key Findings Key Findings How common are gender differences in laws? Women, Business and the Law measures legal restrictions on women’s employment and entrepreneurship by identifying gender-based legal differences. The dataset has captured 21 differences in policies for unmarried women and 26 for married women that affect women’s economic opportunities, for a total of 47 differences across five indicators (box 1.1). Of the 173 economies covered by Women, Business and the Law, 155 maintain at least one barrier for women seeking op- portunities that does not exist for men; on this simple measure (figure 1.1), the majority of economies have at least one legal gender difference. The 30 economies with ten or more legal differences are in the Middle East and North Africa (18), Sub-Saharan Africa (8), East Asia and the Pacific (2) and South Asia (2). The 18 economies with no legal differences between women and men in the areas measured are Armenia; Canada; the Dominican Republic; Estonia; Hungary; Kosovo; Malta; Mexico; Namibia; the Netherlands; New Zealand; Peru; Puerto Rico, ter- ritory of the United States; Serbia; the Slovak Republic; South Africa; Spain and Taiwan, China (figure 1.2). Why were these areas chosen? Of all the questions covered by Women, Business and the Law, only 47 are included in the measure of legal gender dif- ferences. Twenty-two questions contain explicit gender-based differences. Three questions pertain to constitutional rights: the absence of a nondiscrimination clause in the constitution with gender as a protected category, the validity of customary law even if it is contrary to constitutional nondiscrimination and BOX 1.1 LEGAL DIFFERENCES FOR MARRIED AND UNMARRIED WOMEN Women, Business and the Law examines differences by comparing men and women that have the same marital status in the following 21 areas: 1. Applying for a passport 2. Traveling outside the home 3. Traveling outside the country 4. Getting a job or pursuing a trade or profession without permission 5. Signing a contract 6. Registering a business 7. Being “head of household” or “head of family” 8. Conferring citizenship to their children 9. Opening a bank account 10. Choosing where to live 11. Obtaining a national identity card 12. Having ownership rights over property 13. Having inheritance rights over property 14. Working the same night hours15. Doing the same jobs 16. Enjoying the same statutory retirement age 17. Enjoying the same tax deductions or credits 18. Having their testimony carry the same evidentiary weight in court 19. Having a gender or sex nondiscrimination clause in the constitution 20. Applying customary law if it violates the constitution 21. Applying personal law if it violates the constitution The dataset also captures five other areas that apply only to married women: 22. Being legally required to obey their husbands 23. Being able to convey citizenship to a non-national husband 24. Administering marital property 25. Having legal recognition for nonmonetary contributions to marital property 26. Having inheritance rights to the property of their deceased husbands FIGURE 1.1 MOST ECONOMIES HAVE AT LEAST ONE LEGAL GENDER DIFFERENCE ≥10 0 < # < 3 3 ≤ # < 5 5 ≤ # <100 Legal gender differences 58 34 333018 Source: Women, Business and the Law database. Women, Business and the Law 20164 equality and the validity of personal law even if it is contrary to constitutional nondiscrimination and equality. These questions were selected because of the importance for gender equality of specific constitutional protections on nondiscrimination and on the assumption that customary and personal laws might include gender-based legal differences. One question pertains to the absence of legal recognition for nonmonetary contribu- tions to marital property. This question was selected on the assumption that women are more likely to perform activities that benefit the household but are not paid, such as childcare. The measure of legal gender differences is constructed by sum- ming the restrictions on married and unmarried women: 5 that apply only to married women are counted once and 21 that ap- ply to both married and unmarried women are counted twice, for a total of 47 restrictions. For example, only married women can be legally required to obey their husbands, while both mar- ried and unmarried women may be prohibited from working in certain jobs. The measure of legal gender differences can sum to a whole number or a decimal for any economy because the question on job restrictions has ten sub-questions that exam- ine specific restrictions on women’s work. Each sub-question thus has a value of one-tenth. This represents the only differ- ence in the construction of the measure from the 2014 edition of the Women, Business and the Law report. Previously, the question on job restrictions had 8 sub-questions each equal to one-eighth.These categories of questions were not included in this measure of gender legal differences: (1) questions that are not gender-differentiated but may disproportionately affect women, such as credit reporting rules; (2) questions describing gender-neutral legal frameworks, for example, marital property regimes; and (3) questions from the protecting women from violence indicator, such as whether there are legal protections for victims of domestic violence. The questions are not weighted by their importance to women or by the number of women affected. For example, prohibi- tions on women working in mines can affect women more intensely where mining is a major industry but would matter less in economies where it is not. In contrast, requirements that married women get their husbands’ permission to travel outside the home affect all married women. Why do these gender differences matter? Equality of opportunity allows women to make the choices that are best for them, their families and their communities. However, opportunities for women are not equal where legal gender differences are prevalent. Such restrictions constrain women’s ability to make economic decisions in a variety of ways, and can have far-reaching consequences. Moreover, they are associated with real economic outcomes. For example, families may decide it does not make sense for girls to continue with school where their employment prospects—and therefore FIGURE 1.2 NUMBER OF LEGAL GENDER DIFFERENCES, BY ECONOMY 30 25 20 15 105 0 Fiji Uzbekistan Vietnam Burkina Faso Thailand Kyrgyz Republic Tanzania South Sudan Singapore Seychelles Romania Ghana Georgia El Salvador Botswana Bahamas, The Mozambique Equatorial Guinea Côte d'Ivoire Turkey India Honduras São Tomé and Príncipe Mongolia Costa Rica China Angola Uganda Mauritius Burundi Bulgaria Lesotho Barbados Papua New Guinea Bolivia Argentina Ukraine Russian Federation Moldova Belarus Bangladesh Lao PDR Haiti Togo Sierra Leone Israel Madagascar Mali Chile Sri Lanka Niger Tajikistan Azerbaijan Tonga Philippines Indonesia Nepal Chad Gabon Congo, Rep. Djibouti Tunisia Senegal Swaziland Morocco Benin Lebanon Guinea Cameroon Algeria Congo, Dem. Rep. Egypt, Arab Rep. Pakistan West Bank and Gaza Malaysia Kuwait Brunei Darussalam Qatar Syrian Arab Republic Mauritania Oman United Arab Emirates Bahrain Iraq Sudan Yemen, Rep. Afghanistan Iran, Islamic Rep. Jordan Saudi Arabia Source: Women, Business and the Law database. 5 Key Findings Key Findings Taiwan, China Spain South Africa Slovak Republic Serbia Puerto Rico (U.S.) Peru New Zealand Netherlands Namibia Mexico Malta Kosovo Hungary Estonia Dominican Republic Canada Armenia Nicaragua Japan Jamaica Korea, Rep. Bosnia and Herzegovina ZimbabweTrinidad and TobagoTimor-Leste Suriname St. Lucia St. Kitts and Nevis Maldives Antigua and Barbuda Myanmar Guyana Ethiopia Ecuador St. Vincent and the Grenadines Kazakhstan Dominica Belize Zambia Venezuela, RB Uruguay United States United Kingdom Switzerland Sweden Rwanda Portugal Paraguay Norway Luxembourg Lithuania Latvia Italy Ireland Iceland Grenada Germany Finland Denmark Cambodia Belgium Austria Australia Slovenia Panama Guatemala France Croatia Brazil Bhutan Albania Czech Republic Macedonia, FYR Nigeria Colombia Poland Malawi Liberia Hong Kong SAR, China Greece Montenegro Kenya their earning potential—are more limited. Where resources are limited, families may choose to send boys to school instead of girls. 1 Disparities in outcomes can persist throughout a woman’s life: where there are more legal gender differences, not only is she less likely to go to secondary school, she is also less likely to be employed or run a business, and if she does manage to do either she is likely to earn less than a man would (figure 1.3). Having laws on the books is not the only thing that matters. In many economies a more gender-equitable legislative base may coexist with high gender inequality resulting from poor imple- mentation of the laws, whether due to poor enforcement, poor design, or low capacity. Thus for women, laws on paper do not necessarily reflect legal realities. Good mechanisms for imple- menting and adequate budgetary commitments for enforcing laws also matter. However, better rule of law is associated with having more gender equal laws on the books (figure 1.4). The benefits of reform Empowering women legally may have similar effects to em- powering them politically, allowing them to better reflect their preferences in decision-making. Moreover, there is evidence that after women were granted the right to vote, legislative decisions differed in such areas as child welfare and spending on public health. This may be because elected officials better incorporated women’s prefer- ences within their legislative agendas once women became a significant part of the electorate. For example, a study examin- ing state voting rights for women in the United States found that within a year of voting rights being granted to women, voting patterns shifted to incorporate greater local public health spending by about 35%. This allowed for greater emphasis on local public health campaigns for issues such as hygiene, lead- ing to a decrease in infectious childhood diseases and a decline in childhood mortality of about 8–15%. 2 Reducing gender-based legal restrictions and promoting the use of women’s talent in the labor force allows women to choose the opportunities which are best for them, their families and their communities. Where are relationships between women and the law changing? Since 2010, when Women, Business and the Law first pub- lished a baseline of gender legal differences affecting women’s economic opportunities and started measuring reforms, the pace of reform has either remained relatively constant or has been increasing (figure 1.5). The region with the fewest reforms over time is South Asia. While economies in South Asia have introduced quotas to Women, Business and the Law 20166 FIGURE 1.3 GREATER LEGAL GENDER INEQUALITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH FEWER GIRLS ATTENDING SECONDARY SCHOOL RELATIVE TO BOYS, FEWER WOMEN WORKING OR RUNNING BUSINESSES, AND A HIGHER GENDER WAGE GAP Legal gender differences The negative relationship between the number of legal gender differences and the ratio of female to male enrollment in secondary education (2012) is statistically significant at the 1% level after controlling for 2014 GNI per capita. The regression analysis is based on 96 economies for which data are available. The regression results remain statistically significant at the 1% level even after controlling for the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (2014). This statistical relationship should not be interpreted as causal. 80 60 40 100 140 120 010 3020Legal gender differences The negative relationship between the number of legal gender differences and the percentage of women employed to the population (age 15+) (2013) is statistically significant at the 1% level after controlling for 2014 GNI per capita. The regression analysis is based on 132 economies for which data are available. The regression results remain statistically significant at the 1% level even after controlling for the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (2014) and the ratio of female to male enrollment in secondary education (2012). This statistical relationship should not be interpreted as causal. 40 20 0 80 60 010 3020 Legal gender differences The negative relationship between legal gender differences and the percent of firms that have a female top manager is statistically significant at the 1% level after controlling for 2014 GNI per capita. The analysis is based on 106 economies for which data are available. The regression results remain statistically significant at the 1% level even after controlling for the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (2014) and the ratio of female to male enrollment in secondary education (2012). This statistical relationship should not be interpreted as causal. 10 0 20 40 30 010 2551520Legal gender differences The negative relationship between the number of legal gender differences and the female to male ratio of estimated earned income (2014) is statistically significant at the 1% level after controlling for 2014 GNI per capita. The regression analysis is based on 106 economies for which data are available. The regression results remain statistically significant at the 1% level even after controlling for the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (2014) and the ratio of female to male enrollment in secondary education (2012). This statistical relationship should not be interpreted as causal. .6 .4 .21 .8 010 3020 Ratio of female to male enrollment in secondary education Female employment to population ratio Percent of firms with a female top manager Estimated earned income, female to male ratio Source: Women, Business and the Law, World Development Indicators and Enterprise Surveys databases; World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report 2014 (Table E3, p. 66). 7 Key Findings Key Findings increase women’s representation and enacted legislation pro- tecting women from violence, they have shown little reform in the economic domains measured by Women, Business and the Law over time. In the most recent two-year period (ending in April 2015) 65 economies made 94 reforms increasing gender parity (table 1.1). Getting a job had the most reforms with 26, followed by protect- ing women from violence with 23, and accessing institutions with 18. Nine economies reformed in building credit, 7 in providing incentives to work and in going to court, and 4 in using property. Reform descriptions can be found in the Summaries of Women, Business and the Law Reforms section of this report. The following sections examine new data and regional trends in each of the Women, Business and the Law indicators. Accessing institutions Women, Business and the Law’s accessing institutions indica- tor explores women’s legal ability to interact with public au- thorities and the private sector just as men do, by examining both legal capacity and rights, as well as quotas for the public and private sector. Women’s access to public education, health care and social benefits, such as those for low-income households, depend on FIGURE 1.4 IMPROVED RULE OF LAW IS ASSOCIATED WITH FEWER LEGAL GENDER DIFFERENCES Legal gender differences Rule of law index 6 4 2 0 10 8 010 3020 Source: Women, Business and the Law, World Development Indicators and Quality of Government Institute databases. Note: The negative relationship between legal gender differences and the rule of law index (2012) (including: to what extent is there a working separation of powers; to what extent does an independent judiciary exist; to what extent are public office holders who abuse their positions prosecuted or penalized; to what extent are civil rights guaranteed and protected; and to what extent can citizens redress for violations of these rights?) is statistically significant at the 1% level after controlling for 2014 GNI per capita. The analysis is based on 106 economies for which data are available. The regression results remain statistically significant at the 1% level even after controlling for the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (2014) and the ratio of female to male enrollment in secondary education (2012). This statistical relationship should not be interpreted as causal. FIGURE 1.5 PERCENTAGE OF ECONOMIES THAT REFORMED IN AT LEAST ONE INDICATOR, BY REGION 0 10 20 30 40 50Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East & North Africa OECD high income Europe & Central Asia East Asia & Pacific Latin America & Caribbean Percent of economies 2010-20122012-20142014-2016 Source: Women, Business and the Law database. Note: The analysis is based on the list of questions and the 141 economies examined in the Women, Business and the Law 2012 cycle, which was back calculated to 2010. Questions added to the dataset after the 2012 cycle, for example, on quotas or laws protecting women from violence are not considered here. Chile and Hungary are categorized as OECD high income in all three time intervals. South Asia is the only region with no reforms recorded during the three periods. Women, Business and the Law 20168 their ability to move freely, prove their identity, and easily and independently contract with others. These abilities are also nec- essary for dealing with private providers of goods and services, such as landlords and lenders. Over the past century, women have been acquiring greater in- stitutional access, beginning with voting rights. Over the last 50 years, many reforms have removed barriers to married women’s legal capacity. 3 For example, in 1974, Indonesia granted mar- ried women the right to open individual bank accounts. Other economies, such as Spain (in 1978), Switzerland (in 1984) and Paraguay (in 1991), removed legal requirements that husbands grant their wives permission to work outside the home. While progress has been made in many economies to allow women more access, legal restrictions on their ability to take action persist. In economies where husbands can prohibit their wives from working, women are less likely to have formal bank accounts, savings or credit. 4 Access denied Many laws remain restricting women from taking certain actions. Women, Business and the Law examines 11 areas where women may face constraints on their legal capacity to act or ability to conduct transactions. Each action or transaction is examined separately for married and unmarried women. The data show that most restrictions apply only to married women (table 1.2). Among the obstacles to married women working are laws that allow the wife to work outside the home only if it is in the inter- est of the family. In some economies, a woman can lose her right to receive financial support from her husband if she works without his consent. For example, according to Article 1 of the Personal Status Law of the Arab Republic of Egypt, a married woman can leave the house only for purposes allowed by law or custom, otherwise she needs her husband’s permission or she loses her right to financial support. Other issues arise when women cannot convey nationality to their children or spouses. A mother’s inability to pass her citi- zenship to her children may mean that they cannot access ser- vices, such as free public education or health care. It may also mean that when the children seek jobs, immigration laws will not allow them to work. This problem can be particularly acute in economies where the public sector is the largest employer and nationality is a prerequisite for public sector employment (box 1.2). Of the economies examined by Women, Business and the Law, 22 do not allow married mothers to pass citizenship on to their children as fathers can, and 44 do not allow married women to pass citizenship to their spouses as married men can. Recently, Suriname amended its Nationality and Residency Act to allow married women to pass on nationality to their children and non-national spouses in the same way that men can, and Niger reformed its Nationality Law to allow women to pass on citizenship to non-national spouses. The importance of a legal identity Before a woman can enter an employment contract or access finance, she must prove her identity. Where women face more hurdles than men in obtaining national identity (ID) cards, cer- tain activities become difficult, if not impossible. One example is borrowing from a financial institution. A basic precursor to bor- rowing from banks is proof of identity. Proof of identity is nec- essary to prevent financial fraud and identity theft. However, where women face greater difficulty obtaining a national ID TABLE 1.1 CHANGES INCREASING GENDER PARITY OVER THE PAST TWO YEARS Indicator Changes increasing gender parity Accessing institutionsChile; Congo, Rep.; Egypt, Arab Rep.; Fiji; Germany; Haiti; India; Mexico; Nicaragua; Niger; Norway; Pakistan; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sudan; Suriname; Togo; Tunisia Using propertyCroatia; Hungary; Kenya; Nicaragua Getting a jobAlbania; Belarus; Croatia; Georgia; Guinea; Hong Kong SAR, China; Iran, Islamic Rep.; Israel; Jamaica; Kazakhstan; Lao PDR; Latvia; Lebanon; Macedonia, FYR; Mauritius; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Poland; São Tomé and Príncipe; Serbia; Singapore; Slovenia; South Africa; Taiwan, China; United Kingdom; Uruguay Providing incentives to workBelarus; Lao PDR; Malawi; Mexico; Oman; Tajikistan; Turkey Building creditBelarus; Jamaica; Lao PDR; Mongolia; Seychelles; Taiwan, China; United Arab Emirates; West Bank and Gaza; Zambia Going to courtChad; Colombia; Costa Rica; Fiji; Kazakhstan; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia Protecting women from violence Albania; Belarus; Belgium; Egypt, Arab Rep.; Georgia; Hungary; Israel; Italy; Kenya; Latvia; Lebanon; Luxembourg; Macedonia, FYR; Malawi; Mozambique; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Pakistan; Peru; Saudi Arabia; Tonga; Uruguay; Zimbabwe Source: Women, Business and the Law database. 9 Key Findings Key Findings TABLE 1.2 BLOCKING ACCESS Action Economies where married women cannot perform some actions in the same way as married men Apply for a passportAfghanistan | Algeria | Bahrain | Barbados | Belize | Benin | Botswana | Cameroon | Congo, Rep. | Dominica | Egypt, Arab Rep. | Fiji Gabon | Grenada | Haiti | Iran, Islamic Rep. | Iraq | Jordan | Malawi | Mali | Myanmar | Oman | Pakistan | Philippines | Saudi Arabia Seychelles | St. Vincent and the Grenadines | Sudan | Trinidad and Tobago | Uganda | United Arab Emirates | Yemen, Rep. 32 Be head of householdBahrain | Benin | Burundi | Cameroon | Chad | Chile | Congo, Dem. Rep. | Congo, Rep. | Djibouti | Gabon | Guinea | Honduras Indonesia | Iran, Islamic Rep. | Iraq | Jordan | Madagascar | Mali | Mauritania | Morocco | Niger | Oman | Philippines | Rwanda Saudi Arabia | Senegal | Sudan | Tunisia | United Arab Emirates | Yemen, Rep. 30 Choose where to liveAfghanistan | Bahrain | Benin | Brunei Darussalam | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | Chad | Congo, Dem. Rep. | Congo, Rep. Equatorial Guinea | Gabon | Guinea | Haiti | Iran, Islamic Rep. | Iraq | Jordan | Kuwait | Malaysia | Mali | Niger | Oman | Qatar Rwanda | Saudi Arabia | Senegal | Sudan | Syrian Arab Republic | United Arab Emirates | West Bank and Gaza | Yemen, Rep. 30 Confer citizenship to childrenBahamas, The | Bahrain | Barbados | Brunei Darussalam | Guinea | Iran, Islamic Rep. | Iraq Jordan | Kuwait | Lebanon | Madagascar | Malaysia | Mauritania | Nepal | Oman | Qatar Saudi Arabia | Sudan | Swaziland | Syrian Arab Republic | United Arab Emirates West Bank and Gaza 22 Get a job without permissionBahrain | Bolivia | Cameroon | Chad | Congo, Dem. Rep. | Gabon | Guinea Iran, Islamic Rep. | Jordan | Kuwait | Mauritania | Niger | Qatar | Sudan Syrian Arab Republic | United Arab Emirates | West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. 18 Travel outside the homeAfghanistan | Bahrain | Brunei Darussalam | Egypt, Arab Rep. Iran, Islamic Rep. | Iraq | Jordan | Kuwait | Malaysia | Oman Qatar | Saudi Arabia | Sudan | Syrian Arab Republic United Arab Emirates | West Bank and Gaza | Yemen, Rep. 17 Obtain a national identity cardAfghanistan | Algeria | Benin | Cameroon Egypt, Arab Rep. | Mauritius | Oman Pakistan | Saudi Arabia | Senegal 10 Travel outside the countryIran, Islamic Rep. | Iraq Qatar | Saudi Arabia Sudan | Syrian Arab Republic 6 Register a business 4 Open a bank account 2 Sign a contract 2 Source: Women, Business and the Law database. Bhutan | Congo, Dem. Rep. Pakistan Suriname Congo, Dem. Rep. Niger Congo, Dem. Rep.  Equatorial Guinea Women, Business and the Law 201610 card, they are less likely to borrow from a financial institution (figure 1.6). In ten economies, married women need to provide additional documentation to get a national ID card—a requirement to which married men are not subject. Sometimes, difficulty in obtaining a national ID card starts be- fore a woman can even apply for one. Often, the first step to securing any form of identification is to produce a birth certifi- cate. Women need birth certificates not only to interact with government institutions and conduct official transactions, but also to ensure that their children can access public services. However, women may not be able to register their children’s births or obtain birth certificates (box 1.3). Increasing women’s representation In addition to reforming laws restricting women’s legal capac- ity and ability to conduct transactions, many economies are establishing gender quotas to increase women’s representation at the highest levels of government and the private sector. Women, Business and the Law examines reserved seat and party list quotas for parliaments and local governments, and quotas for corporate boards. The principle of equity is at the core of arguments in fa- vor of gender quotas. Quotas can enable a more equitable representation of women in leadership positions, improving their descriptive representation—which may translate into more equitable representation of women’s interests in de- cision making. The aim is to improve women’s substantive representation. BOX 1.2 NATIONALITY MATTERS In Jordan, because married mothers are unable to convey citizenship to their children or spouses, children with Jordanian mothers and foreign fathers cannot obtain free public health care or education. As they grow older, it is difficult for them to obtain driver’s licenses and work permits. Public school can cost up to 12 times more for noncitizens, and a one-year work permit for a foreign spouse or child can cost up to 5% of income per capita. The Jordanian government estimates there are almost 400,000 such children living in the country, of a total population of about 6.5 million. In recognition of the challenges such families face, as of January 2015 children of Jordanian mothers and non-Jordanian fathers can apply for a special identification card that allows them to obtain such subsidized government benefits as free high school education and health care. Adult children of Jordanian mothers and non-Jordanian fathers will no longer have to pay for work permits and will have second priority for jobs after Jordanian citizens. They will also be able to own property and obtain driver’s licenses. In the first month almost 10,000 applications for these identification cards were submitted. However, for children to be eligible for benefits, their mother must have resided in Jordan for at least five years. This creates difficulties for those whose mothers reside outside Jordan, do not have records of when they entered the country or have died. Source: “Over 9,000 Children of Women Married to Foreigners Apply for IDs,” Rana Husseini, Jordan Times, January 27, 2015, www.jordantimes.com/news/local/over-9000-children- jordanian-women-married-foreigners-apply-ids; “Regional Dialogue on Gender Equality, Nationality and Statelessness: Overview and Key Findings,” UNHCR and CRTD.A., 2011, www.unhcr.org/4f33ea656.pdf; “Jordan’s Second-Class Citizens,” Elizabeth Whitman, Boston Review, October 14, 2013. FIGURE 1.6 WOMEN ARE LESS LIKELY TO BORROW FROM A FINANCIAL INSTITUTION WHERE PROCESSES FOR GETTING NATIONAL ID CARDS DIFFER BY GENDER 11% Ye s Can a married woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a married man?No 5% Borrowed from a financial institution, female (% age 15+) Source: Women, Business and the Law, Global Findex and World Development Indicators databases. Note: The positive relationship between the percentage of females (age 15+) who borrowed from a financial institution and the legal ability of a married woman to apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man is statistically significant at the 1% level after controlling for 2014 GNI per capita. The regression analysis is based on 117 economies for which data are available. The regression results remain statistically significant at the 5% level even after controlling for the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (2014) and the ratio of female to male enrollment in tertiary education (2012). However, the results are sensitive to other levels of education largely due to two outlier economies. This statistical relationship should not be interpreted as causal. 11 Key Findings Key Findings Decisions by legislative bodies with more women involved in decision making may differ qualitatively from those by insti- tutions with fewer women involved. A study of 265 village councils in two states in India where a third of the positions of council head had been reserved for women since 1993 found that women leaders invest more in infrastructure that is directly relevant to women’s needs. 5 Another cross-country study analyzing government spending over more than 35 years found that countries with quotas for the number of female legislators spent more money on social services and welfare than countries which lacked such quotas. 6 The use of quotas to boost women’s political representation is widespread. Globally, over 40% of economies have quotas for women members of parliament and local government: for parliament 21 economies have reserved seat quotas and 52 have candidate list quotas, and for local governments 23 have reserved seat quotas and 42 have candidate list quotas (table 1.3). Candidate list quotas determine the minimum number of women that must be on a party list. Reserved seat quotas for parliament range from 10% in Jordan to 33% in Kenya, and candidate list quotas range from 20% in Mongolia to 50% in Tunisia. Although candidate list quotas in both Bolivia and the Democratic Republic of Congo are 50%, representation of women in the Bolivian parliament is 53% and in the Democratic Republic of Congo it is just 9%. This may be attributable to differences in placement requirements and sanctions between the two economies: in Bolivia there is a zipper system that re- quires political parties to alternate genders on candidate lists. Failure to comply results in rejection of the party list. In the Democratic Republic of Congo the law is silent on both place- ment requirements and sanctions for noncompliance. Other examples of sanctions used to enforce compliance of gender quotas in candidate lists are fines in El Salvador and the loss of state funding in Ireland. Recently, Egypt introduced a 25% women’s quota for local councils and a 10% women’s quota for parliament. Tunisia’s new electoral law introduced a 50% gender quota on candi- date lists. Niger and Sudan both increased their reserved seat quotas for women in parliament, Niger to 15% and Sudan to 30%. Pakistan introduced a 22% quota for women in local gov- ernments and Haiti’s new Electoral Law provides that one out of three city council members must be a woman. Saudi Arabia has introduced a 20% reserved seat quota for women at the national level. Policy makers are also attempting to increase the number of women who serve on corporate boards. Some studies have found a positive correlation between companies with women on their boards and their financial success. 7 Recently, a survey of 6,500 companies showed that companies with greater fe- male participation on boards were less likely to be hit by gover- nance scandals involving bribery, fraud and other factors likely to depress business confidence. 8 Boosting the employment of women on corporate boards may be beneficial for economic growth by improving the quality of governance. Of the economies measured by Women, Business and the Law, nine have quotas for publicly listed companies: Belgium, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Israel, Italy, Norway and Spain. The most recent quotas were introduced in Germany (30%) and India (at least one board member has to be a woman). Quotas range from BOX 1.3 BARRIERS TO WOMEN OBTAINING BIRTH CERTIFICATES Birth certificates are required when applying for a range of social benefits, including health care and school registration, and for most forms of civil identi- fication. In some economies, such as Barbados, France and the Syrian Arab Republic, the father is legally responsible for registering the birth of a child. Several economies make birth registration contingent on the existence of a marital relationship between parents. For example, in the Islamic Republic of Iran if the parents’ marriage is not registered, both parents must appear before the civil registrar to register a child’s birth. In Egypt a mother who cannot prove her marital relationship can register a birth only if a person who witnessed the child’s birth testifies. In Senegal any person declaring the birth other than the father has to show a marriage certificate for the child’s parents. And in Swaziland the law specifically requires the father to register the birth of a child. In 2006 Nepal updated its legislation with more gender-neutral language for its birth registration procedures. Previously, notice of a birth was given by the head of household, and in his absence, by the eldest male member of the family. Women as well as men can now be designated head of household, and the eldest male member no longer provides birth notification if the head of household is absent. Source: France, Civil Code, Art. 56; France, Circular of 28 October 2011; Iran, Islamic Rep., Registration of Personal Status Code, Art. 16; Egypt, Arab Rep., Civil Status Code, Law No. 143 of 1994, Art. 20; Egypt, Arab Rep., Law No. 12 of 1996 Promulgating the Child Law Amended by Law No. 126 of 2008, Art. 15; “Livret d’Informations Juridiques l’Etat Civil,” Ministry of Justice of Senegal, January 2009; Nepal, Law Amending Some Nepal Acts to Maintain Gender Equality, 2063 (2006); Swaziland, Births, Marriages and Deaths Registration Act, 1983, Arts. 10 and 15; Syrian Arab Republic, Civil Status Law, Art. 23; UNICEF 2013. Women, Business and the Law 201612 20% in France to 40% in Iceland, Norway and Spain. In Israel, as in India, publicly listed companies must have at least one woman on their boards. More movement is expected in this area due to recent European Union efforts encouraging member states to increase women’s representation on corporate boards to 40%. 9 Whether legislation sets corporate board quotas for the private sector or quotas for local governments and parliaments, the goal is clear: to make women better represented in all institu- tions, public and private. Using property The using property indicator examines women’s ability to acquire, access, manage and control property—the ability to use property—by analyzing inheritance and marital property regimes to better understand how they affect women’s access to assets. The ability to use property is important to everyone, regard- less of gender. Access to property not only increases women’s financial security, but is also associated with their increased bargaining power within the household. Access to assets has also been linked to gains in family welfare, such as children’s health. 10 In Ecuador, for example, women’s share in couples’ wealth is associated with a higher likelihood of joint decision- making about employment and spending. In Colombia women who own property are in a better bargaining position at home, and are more likely to be able to move freely, negotiate the right to work, and control their income. 11 Despite these advances, regional and local gender asset gaps persist in property ownership, particularly of major assets.12 Traditionally, women own less property than men and their prop- erty rights are less secure. And women in informal unions may have even less secure property rights than other groups of wom- en. In Rwanda after evidence demonstrated that titling policies were systematically overlooking women in informal unions, land registration forms were revised to be more inclusive of them. 13 In Ghana insecure property rights have been found to lead women to make farming decisions that have negative effects on land productivity. 14 One study found that increasing women’s access to resources could raise agricultural output in developing countries by an estimated 2.5–4%. 15 Inheritance One reason for gaps between women’s ownership of assets and men’s may be inheritance. Often, inheritance offers the surest opportunity for both men and women to own land or housing; a TABLE 1.3 QUOTAS FOR PARLIAMENT AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT, BY REGION Region Quotas for parliament Quotas for local government Reserved seats Candidate lists Reserved seats Candidate lists East Asia & Pacific  China; Indonesia; Mongolia; Taiwan, China; Timor-LestePhilippines; Taiwan, China; Timor-LesteIndonesia; Mongolia Europe & Central AsiaKosovo Albania; Armenia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Kyrgyz Republic; Macedonia, FYR; Montenegro; Serbia; UzbekistanKosovo Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Macedonia, FYR; Montenegro; Serbia; Uzbekistan Latin America & CaribbeanHaiti Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; UruguayHaiti Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Paraguay; Peru; Uruguay Middle East & North AfricaDjibouti; Egypt, Arab Rep.; Iraq; Jordan; Morocco; Saudi ArabiaAlgeria; Tunisia; West Bank and GazaEgypt, Arab Rep.; Iraq; Jordan; Morocco; West Bank and GazaAlgeria OECD high income  Belgium; Chile; France; Greece; Ireland; Korea, Rep.; Poland; Portugal; Slovenia; Spain  Belgium; France; Greece; Italy; Korea, Rep.; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Slovenia; Spain South AsiaAfghanistan; Bangladesh; Pakistan Nepal Bangladesh; India; Pakistan Nepal Sub-Saharan AfricaBurundi; Kenya; Mauritania; Niger; Rwanda; South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania; Uganda; ZimbabweBurkina Faso; Congo, Dem. Rep.; Congo, Rep.; Guinea; Lesotho; Mauritania; Senegal; TogoBurundi; Guinea; Kenya; Lesotho; Mauritania; Niger; Rwanda; Sierra Leone; South Sudan; UgandaBurkina Faso; Congo, Dem. Rep.; Congo, Rep.; Mauritius; Namibia; Senegal; South Africa Source: Women, Business and the Law database. 13 Key Findings Key Findings 2014 study in Ghana found that 30% of owner-occupied dwell- ings were inherited or received as gifts.16 Where inheritance rights for men and women are unequal under the law, women may be less likely to own land or housing. Giving women greater access to assets through inheritance can change outcomes for children, particularly girls. In 1994, two states in India, Karnataka and Maharashtra, reformed the Hindu Succession Act to allow women and men the same rights to inherit joint family property. This altered control over assets within families and increased parental investments in daugh- ters. The second-generation effects were even larger in such areas as daughters’ education. For example, mothers who benefited from the reform spent twice as much on their daugh- ters’ education. Moreover, where the reforms occurred, women were more likely to have bank accounts and their households were more likely to have sanitary latrines, suggesting that legal empowerment gives women more bargaining power within the household and leads to better educational and financial out- comes for families. 17 Although the reform was initiated at the state level, it has now been implemented throughout India. Access to assets through inheritance is particularly important for widows, who may depend on inheritance for economic security and survival. In 35 of the 173 economies covered by Women, Business and the Law, female surviving spouses do not have the same inheritance rights as their male counterparts. None of the OECD high-income economies, nor the economies in Europe and Central Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean, have legal re- strictions on the ability of female surviving spouses to inherit. In East Asia and the Pacific, four economies—Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia and Tonga—do not grant widows equal inher- itance rights. In South Asia, widows do not have equal inheritance rights in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. In Sub- Saharan Africa, the law does not give equal inheritance rights to widows in nine economies: Burundi, Guinea, Kenya, Mauritania, Senegal, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania and Uganda. None of the economies in the Middle East and North Africa, except Malta, grant widows the same inheritance rights as widowers. Women may also be pressured by relatives to give up the in- heritances they do receive. In 2010, Jordan passed a law pre- venting women from waiving their inheritance and requiring any property they inherit to be registered in their name when the will is executed. 18 The law also requires that relatives chal- lenging the bequest go to court to demonstrate valid reasons for nullifying a woman’s inheritance. Marital property regimes Marital property regimes determine the allocation of property ownership and management between spouses during the mar- riage and at its dissolution through death or divorce. These rules have a direct impact on women’s financial inclusion and can help or deter their access to credit. Different marital property regimes have different consequences for the allocation of property within households. Each economy sets its default regime in the family or personal status law. Full and partial default community property ( joint property) regimes offer equal access to property, including land, for both spouses during and after marriage. These are generally beneficial to women as long as the effects of the marital property regimes are not negated by other laws. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, for example, the Family Code vests control of joint prop- erty solely in the husband. Of the 173 economies covered by Women, Business and the Law, 79 have a full or partial community property regime; in six of these, however—Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Côte d’Ivoire—the hus- band has the right to administer the joint property. Comparing Women, Business and the Law data with Global Findex data shows that women are more likely to have a bank account in economies with a community property regime; 19 however, where the husband has the right to administer the joint marital property, the share of women with a bank account decreases (figure 1.7). FIGURE 1.7 WHERE HUSBANDS CONTROL MARITAL PROPERTY, WOMEN ARE LESS LIKELY TO HAVE AN ACCOUNT AT A FINANCIAL INSTITUTION 57% Full/Partial regimes with joint controlFull/Partial regimes with husband control18% Account at a financial institution, female (% age 15+) Source: Women, Business and the Law, Global Findex and World Development Indicators databases. Note: The difference in the percentages illustrated is statistically significant at the 1% level after controlling for 2014 GNI per capita. The regression analysis is based on 65 economies for which data are available. The regression results remain statistically significant at the 1% level even after controlling for the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (2014) and the ratio of female to male enrollment in secondary education (2012). This statisti- cal relationship should not be interpreted as causal. Women, Business and the Law 201614 Four economies have reformed the use of marital property over the past two years. Croatia introduced special provisions on transactions related to the marital home that require written spousal consent to alienate or encumber property used as a family home. Hungary added new provisions to the family law section of its civil code that prevent either spouse from dispos- ing of the marital home while property is held in community and requiring the consent of the other spouse even after the marriage is dissolved until tenancy rights are settled. Kenya’s new law on matrimonial property makes partial community of property the standard, and both spouses now have equal rights to administer joint property. In Nicaragua, the new family code makes separation of property the default regime and repeals provisions giving judges the power to decide ownership of as- sets when spouses disagree. Getting a job The getting a job indicator assesses restrictions on women’s work, such as prohibitions on working at night or in certain in- dustries. This indicator also covers laws on work-related mater- nity, paternity and parental benefits. All the economies covered by Women, Business and the Law have labor regulations that treat men and women differently. Some of the differences may facilitate women’s participation in the workforce, but many prevent it. Differences in how the law treats women and men can affect women’s incentives and ability to get the job of their choice. Restrictions on women’s work Of the 173 economies surveyed by Women, Business and the Law, 100 restrict non-pregnant and non-nursing women from pursuing the same economic activities as men; some directly prohibit women from holding particular jobs (table 1.4). Restrictions on working hours, sectors and occupations limit the range of jobs that women can hold and can lead to occu- pational segregation and confinement of women to low-paying sectors and activities. In fact, many of the jobs prohibited for women are in highly paid industries, such as mining and manu- facturing. This has real implications for their earning potential. Restrictions on the types of work that women pursue can also hurt firms and the overall competitiveness of an economy because the pool of qualified candidates for open positions is artificially halved, reducing the likelihood of getting the most talented people. Such laws can curtail women’s economic choices. For example, the Russian Federation had a high gender earnings differential during its transition to a market economy largely because of occupational gender segregation. That segregation was related more to gender-based job restrictions in Soviet-era labor regu- lations, than to gender differences in education or the higher incidence of part-time work among women. Because of their maternity and childcare functions, women were considered a specific labor force barred from “unsuitable” occupations and encouraged to concentrate in health care, education, light in- dustry and white collar jobs. 20 TABLE 1.4 TASKS AND OCCUPATIONS PROHIBITED TO WOMEN Economy Examples ArgentinaProducing or manipulating explosives, flammable or corrosive materials, or working in or around such areas; working as a machinist or fire-stoker; selling distilled or fermented alcoholic beverages in any location or space in which they are dispensed; distilling alcohol and producing or mixing liquors; sizing or polishing glass, working in any location or site that regularly contains dust or irritating or toxic vapors; greasing or cleaning machinery in movement; loading or unloading ships, cranes or derricks; transporting incandescent materials. FranceWomen may not carry loads greater than 25 kilograms or transport loads of greater than 45 kilograms with a wheelbarrow. Madagascar Preparing, handling and selling printed literature, posters, drawings, engravings, paintings, emblems, images and other objects whose sale, offer, exposure, display or distribution is punishable under criminal laws or, that without falling afoul of the law, are contrary to morality. PakistanWorking in the same room as a cotton-opener in a factory; working inside any factory to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of machinery while that part is in motion, or working between moving parts or between fixed and moving parts of any machinery. Russian Federation Truck driver in agriculture; freight train conductor; deckhand (boatswain, skipper, assistant skipper and sailors of all denominations) on ships of all types of fleets as well as floating docks and cranes for loading grain, cement, coal and other dusty cargo; worker in integrated teams and longshoreman engaged in loading and unloading in ports and harbors; woodworker; installer of antennas at high places; mining rig operator; operator of chemical treat- ment of wells; lift machinist in oil and gas industry; bulldozer machinist; plumber involving the repair of sewer networks; metal and alloy smelter; driver of loading machine; pipe, furnace and flue cleaner; controller of speed of train wagons. United Arab EmiratesManufacturing lead monoxide or a number of other lead derivatives and compounds; working in the asphalt industry, tanneries, or in bars; working with fertilizer derived from animal droppings or blood; welding by oxygen, ethylene, or electricity; making mercury mirrors; extracting silver from lead ashes; cleaning the workshops used for the three previous jobs; managing and monitoring mechanical machines; repairing or cleaning mechanical machines; flaying, chopping, and depilating animals and melting their fats; manufacturing charcoal from the bones of animals except the operation of isolating the bones before burning them. Source: Women, Business and the Law database. 15 Key Findings Key Findings Currently women are prohibited from working in 456 specified jobs in Russia, ranging from driving a truck carrying agricul- tural produce to woodworking. In 2009, a woman applied to be an assistant driver in the St. Petersburg subway system and was turned down because the law prohibits women from holding such jobs. She challenged this in court on grounds of gender discrimination, but the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation rejected her argument and found the state’s interest in protecting women’s health a justifiable reason to enforce the prohibition. 21 The getting a job indicator tracks 10 areas of job restrictions for women: mining, construction, factory work, metal work, weight-lifting limits, jobs deemed hazardous, jobs deemed ar- duous, jobs deemed morally inappropriate, other occupations not listed above, and other tasks not listed above. Nearly every economy in the Middle East and North Africa has at least one restriction on women’s work; 28 of 41 Sub-Saharan African economies examined have such restrictions, compared to only 8 of 32 OECD high-income economies examined. The OECD high-income economies that restrict the jobs women can do are Chile, Czech Republic, France, Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Poland and Slovenia. Women, Business and the Law finds that having restrictions on women’s work lowers women’s earning potential relative to men’s (figure 1.8). Maternity, paternity and parental leave Women, Business and the Law measures the length of paid and unpaid maternity, paternity and parental leave, who pays it and the rate at which it is paid. Maternity, paternity and parental leave affects the choices women make and the opportunities available to them in the working world. But too much leave may undermine women’s labor force participation if it makes women less competitive in the labor market and discourages employers from hiring women of child-bearing age. Though maternity leave is standard in almost all economies, it varies greatly in duration, from a few weeks to a few years. Most maternity leave is paid, though economies vary on wheth- er it is paid by employers, governments or both. Of all the economies covered, only Tonga in East Asia and the Pacific and Suriname in Latin America and the Caribbean do not entitle parents to any kind of leave, paid or unpaid, when a child is born. Papua New Guinea provides unpaid maternity leave and the United States provides unpaid parental leave. All other economies provide paid maternity leave or offer mater- nity benefits through paid parental leave. Of equal importance to having the benefit is the question of who pays for it. If firms must pay for maternity leave, from the employer perspective the cost of hiring women of reproductive age will be higher than the cost of hiring men. If, however, the cost of maternity leave is paid by the government, firms would not necessarily face higher costs for hiring women. In 51% of the economies that provide paid maternity leave, the govern- ment pays for maternity benefits, in 30% the employer pays the full cost and in 19% this cost is shared between the employer and the government (figure 1.9). Parental benefits enabling mothers, fathers or both to take paid or unpaid time off to care for a newborn child can foster a more equitable division of childrearing responsibilities in the family. This in turn can give women greater opportunities for career advancement. While 167 of 173 economies mandate maternity leave, paid or unpaid parental leave is still a rarity. Only 53 of the economies covered, none in Sub-Saharan Africa, have any form of parental leave (figure 1.10). And paternity leave is still only offered in half of economies. Providing options for who takes parental leave can give both parents more flexible work schedules. This is especially rel- evant for mothers, whose return to the workforce after ma- ternity leave may depend on their ability to share child-rearing FIGURE 1.8 THE WAGE GAP IS LIKELY TO BE SMALLER WHERE THERE ARE NO JOB RESTRICTIONS ON WOMEN’S WORK 64% No job restrictions At least 1 job restriction52% Estimated earned income, female to male ratio Source: Women, Business and the Law and World Development Indicators databases; World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report 2014 (Table E3, p. 66) Note: The difference in the estimated earned income, female to male ratio (2014), in econo- mies with no restrictions on women’s work and economies with at least 1 restriction is sta- tistically significant at the 1% level after controlling for 2014 GNI per capita. The regression analysis is based on 121 economies for which data are available. The regression results remain significant at the 5% level even after controlling for the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (2014) and the ratio of female to male enrollment in secondary education (2012). This statistical relationship should not be interpreted as causal. Women, Business and the Law 201616 responsibility with their spouses. Regulatory schemes allowing parents to better balance parenthood with employment vary. In Estonia and Lithuania, for example, parental leave is a family entitlement and decisions about who takes it and for how long are made by both parents. Portugal uses bonuses to extend the total length of paid parental leave if both parents share it. Parents in Italy, Germany and Japan have similar options. Recently, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia intro- duced unpaid parental leave, and Poland, Singapore and the United Kingdom introduced paid parental leave. Providing incentives to work Women, Business and the Law covers two areas that may af- fect a woman’s incentive to work in paid employment: personal income tax regulations and the availability of public and/or sub- sidized private childcare. Tax benefits Gender differences in personal income tax regulations may affect a woman’s decision to enter the workforce in the formal sector, especially if it means paying disproportionately higher taxes. In 16 of 173 economies—Benin, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Republic of Congo, Fiji, Guinea, Indonesia, Iraq, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Morocco, Niger, the Philippines, Togo and Tunisia— tax provisions directly favor men. These economies either grant men an explicit tax deduc- tion or credit, or an implicit tax deduction or credit is granted to the male head of household. In some of these economies, women can in limited circum- stances also benefit from these provisions. For example, the FIGURE 1.9 WHO PAYS FOR MATERNITY LEAVE? 0 20 40 70 80 90 100 10 30 60 50 Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia Middle East & North Africa Latin America & Caribbean OECD high income Europe & Central Asia East Asia & Pacific Percent of economies Employer 100%Employer and GovernmentGovernment 100% Source: Women, Business and the Law database. FIGURE 1.10 JUST UNDER ONE-THIRD OF ECONOMIES PROVIDE FOR PARENTAL LEAVE Maternity leave (167) Paternity leave (86) All three (31) Parental leave (53) Exclusively parental leave (4) Source: Women, Business and the Law database. 17 Key Findings Key Findings income tax law of Iraq grants women tax deductions if they are widowed or divorced. However, if women are married, the tax deduction is granted to the husband by default as the legal head of household. Other economies, such as Burkina Faso, al- low women to claim the tax deduction if it has not already been claimed by their husbands. Only Israel, Singapore and Spain provide a specific tax credit or deduction to women. Family care and women’s employment The ease, cost and availability of care for young children and free public education for school-age children can affect whether a mother decides to work outside the home for paid compensa- tion or to stay at home with the children. More public assistance for childcare may create opportunities for women to participate in the labor force because women are often the primary care-givers for children. The percentage of women who reported receiving wages in economies that provide public childcare was more than twice that in economies that do not (figure 1.11). Of the economies covered, 39 have no public childcare facilities; 27 of these are low and middle- income economies. Tajikistan now has a law on preschool education, including di- rect public childcare, and Turkey has introduced free preschool education for children ages 4–5. Governments sometimes take women’s unpaid care work into consideration when designing leave policies because women must often balance employment with care responsibilities for children, sick relatives and the elderly. Women, Business and the Law finds that 70 of the covered economies provide paid or unpaid leave to care for a sick relative. The Employment and Labor Relations Act of Tanzania, for example, allows employees to take at least four paid days to care for a sick child. Building credit Building credit identifies the minimum value of loans tracked by private credit bureaus and public credit registries and assesses bureaus and registries that collect information from microfi- nance institutions, retailers and utility companies. This edition expands coverage to legislation on nondiscrimination in access to credit on the basis of gender and marital status. Recent initiatives to improve the collection of data on women’s access to credit 22 highlight the reality that women receive less credit than men. The reasons for women’s credit constraints are often different from those of men. Building a credit history Where public credit registries and private credit bureaus only record loans above a certain threshold, they might exclude small borrowers, many of whom are female entrepreneurs. Where credit registries and bureaus do not record loans from micro- finance institutions—for whom women make up a large share of borrowers—the good repayment histories of microfinance clients cannot be leveraged. Finally, where information from nonbank institutions, such as retailers and utilities, is not used to assess borrower creditworthiness, it excludes those who lack traditional banking relationships, many of whom are women. Of the 173 economies covered by Women, Business and the Law, 30 do not have a public credit registry or private credit bureau that covers more than 5% of the population. Among the 143 economies that have credit reporting institutions covering more than 5% of the population, 14 have minimum loan thresh- olds higher than 1% of income per capita. Nondiscrimination under the law However, even with a credit rating based on successful pay- ment of retail or utility bills, lenders may discriminate against women. This edition of Women, Business and the Law includes FIGURE 1.11 MORE WOMEN RECEIVE WAGES WHERE GOVERNMENTS SUPPORT CHILDCARE 30% Ye s Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided?No 13% Received wages in the past year, female (% age 15+) Source: Women, Business and the Law, Global Findex and World Development Indicators databases. Note: The positive relationship between the percentage of females who report receiving salary or wages from an employer in the past 12 months (2014) and legislation subsidizing or man- dating public provision of childcare for those too young for primary education is statistically significant at the 1% level after controlling for 2014 GNI per capita. The regression analysis is based on 139 economies for which data are available. The regression results remain significant at the 1% level even after controlling for the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (2014) and the ratio of female to male enrollment in secondary education (2012). This statistical relationship should not be interpreted as causal. Women, Business and the Law 201618 new questions on whether legislation prohibits discrimination in access to credit based on either gender or marital status. The United States led the way in nondiscrimination in access to credit with the Equal Credit Opportunities Act of 1974, thanks to the efforts of a female Representative who inserted the terms sex and marital status into the legislation and called out male committee members for their “oversight” in initially not including them as protected categories. 23 The law specifically prohibits discrimination based on sex and marital status with respect to any aspect of a credit transaction. Globally, 46 economies require nondiscrimination in access to credit on the basis of gender (table 1.5). The Australian Sex Discrimination Act, for example, prohibits discrimination on the grounds of sex when providing services relating to banking, insurance and the provision of grants, loans, credit or finance. 24 Of the 46 economies that prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender, 24 also prohibit discrimination based on marital status: Australia; Austria; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; Croatia; France; Hong Kong SAR, China; Hungary; Ireland; Mexico; Mongolia; Morocco; the Netherlands; New Zealand; Peru; Philippines; Puerto Rico, territory of the United States; Slovak Republic; South Africa; Trinidad and Tobago; United Kingdom and the United States. Even in economies that do not legislate nondiscrimination in access to credit, women’s access can be bolstered by programs targeting women entrepreneurs, which exist in economies as varied as Brazil, Nigeria and Vietnam (box 1.4). TABLE 1.5 WHERE DISCRIMINATION IN ACCESS TO CREDIT IS PROHIBITED Region Economies East Asia & Pacific Hong Kong SAR, China; Mongolia; Philippines; Vietnam (4) Europe & Central Asia Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Romania (10) Latin America & Caribbean Bolivia; Mexico; Peru; Puerto Rico (U.S.); Trinidad and Tobago (5) Middle East & North Africa Malta; Morocco (2) OECD high incomeAustralia; Austria; Belgium; Canada; Czech Republic; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Luxembourg; Netherlands; New Zealand; Poland; Portugal; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom; United States (24) Sub-Saharan Africa South Africa (1) Source: Women, Business and the Law database. BOX 1.4 SPOTLIGHT ON NIGERIA In 2003, Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development in cooperation with the Bank of Industry established the Business Development Fund for Women (BUDFOW), a $1.5 million initiative that provides individual women entrepreneurs with low-interest loans, technical support and capacity-building training to expand their businesses. Any adult Nigerian woman can make the case to the BUDFOW that expansion of her business is stalled due to lack of access to funding. From 2011 to 2013, 56 female-run businesses received approximately $500,000 from the revolving loan scheme. In another initiative, highlighting the country’s commitment to decrease gender disparity, the Central Bank of Nigeria in 2011 formulated a policy target to increase women’s access to financial services by 15 percent annually. To achieve this goal it set up the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Fund which provides microcredit loans. Sixty percent of funds amounting to roughly $810 million disbursed by partner financial institu- tions are reserved for women entrepreneurs. Source: “Business Fund for Women,” Bank of Industry Nigeria, accessed June 12, 2015. http://boinigeria.com/business-fund-for-women/; “Microfinance Policy Framework for Nigeria: Revised, April 29, 2011,” Central Bank of Nigeria, http://www.cenbank.org/out/2011/pressrelease/gvd/revised%20microfinance%20policy%20july%2012%202011.pdf; “Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Fund (MSMEDF) Guidelines, Revised, August 2014,” Central Bank of Nigeria, http://www.cenbank.org/Out/2014/DFD/MSMEDF%20GUIDELINES%20 %20.pdf; Federal Ministry of Women Affairs & Social Development, Economic Services Department, Nigeria, 2013, http://www.womenaffairs.gov.ng/index.php/department/economic- services; “2013 Ministerial Platform: A Mid-Term Report on the Progress & Achievements of President Goodluck Jonathan’s Administration in the Federal Ministry of Women’s Affairs and Social Development,” June 25, 2013, http://fmi.gov.ng/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/2013-MP-WA.pdf. 19 Key Findings Key Findings Going to court The going to court indicator examines women’s access to jus- tice by looking at the number of women justices in constitution- al courts and examining whether there are small claims courts. Women’s access to justice can be hindered by limits on their representation in judicial institutions. The United Nations es- timates that globally women account for 27% of all judges. 25 However, evidence is emerging that women judges can make a difference in cases where gender is an issue. For example, an analysis of U.S. federal appellate cases in 1999, 2000 and 2001 found that in cases involving sex discrimination or sexual harassment, plaintiffs were twice as likely to win when a woman was on the panel deciding the cases. The data showed both that women judges were significantly more likely than their male counterparts to find for the plaintiff and that having a woman on the panel increased the probability that male judges would support the plaintiff. 26 Women justices may also matter in cases other than sex discrim- ination or sexual harassment cases. For example, in Tanzania the Hon. Ms. Munuo wrote a decision for the High Court in Ndossi v. Ndossi holding that the nondiscrimination clause of the Constitution entitled a widow to administer her estate on behalf of her children. 27 This decision expanded constitutional protections to women and domesticated international human rights instruments, including the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Women, Business and the Law finds that in the 153 economies where there are constitutional courts, 122 have at least one female justice, and women are chief justices in 26 economies (figure 1.12). The regional distribution of female justices is dis- proportionate, however, as there is not one female chief justice in the Middle East and North Africa or in South Asia. Small claims courts Although most economies do not prevent women from access- ing the court system, many do not make it easy for them to do so. Legal formalities and the costs of litigation, both direct and incidental, discourage poor people from accessing courts. 28 Even for relatively simple disputes, legal formalities are associated with lower enforceability of contracts, longer duration of cases and a perception among participants of lower-quality justice. 29 Small claims courts have jurisdiction over civil cases when less than a specified monetary threshold is at issue. Procedures of these courts are simplified; the reduced cost and faster pro- cesses to render a judgment make them ideal for small busi- nesses, many of which are owned by women. Small claims courts expedite dispute resolution and improve ac- cess to justice for minor disputes of relatively low value. They do FIGURE 1.12 PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE JUSTICES IN CONSTITUTIONAL COURTS 010 20 30 40 50 60 India UkraineHaiti IcelandNepal EstoniaGuinea Indonesia Korea, Rep.SudanTogo West Bank and GazaBangladeshHungary Taiwan, China Papua New GuineaBahrain Burundi Costa Rica Kazakhstan MozambiqueNigerPeru Tajikistan UzbekistanSingapore Russian FederationBelgiumChadFiji Spain SwazilandBrazil Mexico South AfricaNigeriaMalawi BhutanChile Czech RepublicGuatemalaItaly Japan Philippines São Tomé and PríncipeTimor-LesteAlbaniaAlgeria Armenia AzerbaijanCambodiaColombia Congo, Rep.Kosovo LithuaniaMongoliaRomania Seychelles Dominican RepublicArgentinaBulgariaUgandaIsrael Poland Ireland Sri Lanka Trinidad and TobagoAustraliaBelizeBenin Bolivia Côte d'IvoireKenyaMalta Montenegro Burkina FasoFrance Slovak RepublicDenmark GermanyGeorgia LuxembourgMali MyanmarParaguay United StatesAustriaGhana Angola Guyana Sweden MauritiusNorwayCroatia Portugal HondurasLiberiaSerbia BelarusLatvia Venezuela, RB Bosnia and HerzegovinaCanada EcuadorGabon Macedonia, FYRMadagascar Puerto Rico (U.S.)ZimbabweJamaica Kyrgyz RepublicDjibouti Rwanda SloveniaZambia Antigua and BarbudaDominicaGrenada St. Kitts and NevisSt. Lucia St. Vincent and the GrenadinesSierra Leone Source: Women, Business and the Law database. Note: Thirty economies do not have a woman on the constitutional court. These economies are: Afghanistan; Cameroon; the Democratic Republic of Congo; the Arab Republic of Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Hong Kong SAR, China; the Islamic Republic of Iran; Iraq; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Maldives; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Namibia; Nicaragua; Pakistan; Panama; Qatar; Senegal; South Sudan; the Syrian Arab Republic; Thailand; Tonga; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; Uruguay and the Republic of Yemen. A further 20 economies do not have a constitutional court. Women, Business and the Law 201620 so by setting aside legal formalities and using simplified proce- dures. Simpler processes and more relaxed rules lower costs for claimants, who can file and present their own cases; filing fees are lower and judges issue decisions rapidly. 30 For small business owners, small claims courts can be a preferable forum for resolv- ing simple disputes. 31 Fifty-three economies do not have small claims courts or fast- track procedures for smaller claims. While more than 90% of OECD high-income economies have such courts, only 46% of economies in Sub-Saharan Africa do. A few economies have made positive changes in this area; Kazakhstan introduced small claims courts in 2014 and Chad, Colombia, Costa Rica and Trinidad and Tobago raised the maximum amount they can decide on. Protecting women from violence The protecting women from violence indicator examines laws on domestic violence against women and the existence and scope of laws on sexual harassment. The data for this edition expands coverage to whether women are protected from mari- tal rape, what the legal age of marriage is for boys and girls, and whether protection orders can be authorized. Violence affects women and girls of all ages, regardless of loca- tion, income level or social status. It can undermine women’s economic empowerment by preventing employment and block- ing access to other financial resources. In Tanzania, for example, the earnings of women in formal wage work who are exposed to severe partner violence are 60% lower than women who are not exposed. 32 Conversely, economic empowerment seems to protect women from violence: women living in wealthier house- holds have a 45% lower risk of violence than those living in poorer households. 33 Domestic violence: Greater protection at home Globally, the most common form of violence women experience is from an intimate partner.34 Almost one-third of all women who have been in a an intimate relationship have experienced physical or sexual violence. Indeed, intimate partners commit as many as 38% of all murders of women. 35 Legal protection against domestic violence is crucial to reduce impunity and open avenues for redress. Women, Business and the Law has found that life expectancy for women is higher where they are legally protected from domestic violence (figure 1.13). Domestic violence legislation varies greatly in scope and ap- plicability. The data examine where economies have legislation on domestic violence and whether it covers different types of abuse (box 1.5). Of the economies covered, 127 have laws on domestic vio- lence, of which 95 cover both physical and sexual violence and 122 cover psychological violence. Economic violence, which can result in women being deprived of the economic means to leave an abusive relationship, is rarely covered. Subjecting women to economic violence is not addressed in 94 of the total 173 economies for which data has been collected. Laws covering all four types of violence are prevalent in Europe and Central Asia, and in South Asia, where about 74% of economies examined cover physical, sexual, emotional, and economic abuse. This is also the case in 63% of economies in Latin America and the Caribbean, 44% in East Asia and the Pacific, 37% in Sub-Saharan Africa and 25% of OECD high- income economies. In 2014, Lebanon adopted Law 293 on the Protection of Women and Family Members from Domestic Violence—the only law in the Middle East and North Africa to cover all four forms of violence. Additionally, Italy and FYR Macedonia, amended their domestic violence legislation to cover financial violence, and Belarus, Latvia, Saudi Arabia and Tonga enacted new laws on domestic violence. FIGURE 1.13 WOMEN’S LIFE EXPECTANCY AND LEGAL PROTECTION FROM DOMESTIC VIOLENCE 80% Ye s Is there legislation that specifically addresses domestic violence?No 70% Survival to age 65, (% of cohort) Source: Women, Business and the Law and World Development Indicators databases. Note: The positive relationship between female survival to age 65 (% of cohort; 2013) and laws that specifically address domestic violence is statistically significant at the 1% level after controlling for 2014 GNI per capita. The regression analysis is based on 168 economies for which data are available. The regression results remain statistically significant at the 5% level even after controlling for the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (2014) and the ratio of female to male enrollment in secondary education (2012). This statisti- cal relationship should not be interpreted as causal. 21 Key Findings Key Findings However, in many economies, women still have no legal protec- tion. In fact, 46 out of the 173 covered economies have yet to enact laws to address domestic violence (figure 1.14). Seven economies—Belgium, Canada, Estonia, Iceland, Morocco, the Netherlands and Tunisia—have no explicit laws on domestic violence but have addressed the issue by intensifying penalties when criminal offences are committed against spouses or within the family. In economies which have neither enacted legislation on domes- tic violence nor increased penalties for intra-family violence, violence within the family can still be prosecuted under gen- eral criminal laws such as assault. However, specific laws on BOX 1.5 DEFINING DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Domestic violence is gender-specific violence, commonly directed against women, occurring in the family and in interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal relationships can refer to partners who do not live together or are not married. The abuse can be physical, emotional or psychological, sexual, or financial or economic: ÜPhysical violence is any intentional behavior that offends a woman’s bodily integrity or health. ÜEmotional or psychological violence is any conduct or behavior that causes emotional damage, reduces self-worth or self-esteem or aims at degrad- ing or controlling a woman’s actions, behaviors, beliefs and decisions by means of threat, embarrassment, humiliation, manipulation, isolation, constant surveillance or pursuit, insult, intimidation, blackmail, ridicule, exploitation or any other behavior that damages a woman’s psychological health. ÜSexual violence is any conduct or behavior that forces a woman to witness, maintain or participate in unwanted sexual contact or behavior by means of intimidation, threat, coercion or use of force, including sexual assault, marital rape or forcing any type of sexual activity without consent. ÜFinancial or economic violence is any conduct or behavior involving the use or misuse of the partner’s consent regarding their financial resources or assets, including the deprivation, retention or subtraction of money or property or by other means making or attempting to make a woman financially dependent by maintaining control over financial resources. Source: United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, December 20, 1993; United Nations Economic and Social Council 1996; UNHCR 2005; United Nations 2010. FIGURE 1.14 COVERAGE AND SCOPE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE LAWS, BY PERCENTAGE OF ECONOMIES IN A REGION Middle East & North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa OECD high income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean South Asia Criminal penalties Emotional violencePhysical violenceSexual violenceEconomic violence 88 88 75 88 8881 97 69 97 7283 87 74 87 3956 94 50 89 6146 81 28 81 6939 49 37 5 11 46 32 26 16 16 Source: Women, Business and the Law database. Note: Data indicate percentage of economies in a region with legislation. Women, Business and the Law 201622 domestic violence provide clarity by addressing the unique ele- ments of intra-family violence and incorporate mechanisms to protect and support women seeking assistance. In Latin American and the Caribbean, East Asia and the Pacific and South Asia, only Haiti, Myanmar and Afghanistan have no laws on domestic violence. In Europe and Central Asia, Armenia, Russia and Uzbekistan have no laws on domestic violence. Legislation on domestic violence is less prevalent in the Middle East and North Africa, where only 4 out of 19 economies cov- ered have enacted such laws, and in Sub-Saharan Africa, where about half of the covered economies have done so. Over the past 25 years, the number of economies introducing laws addressing domestic violence has risen precipitously from close to zero, to 118. This increase has been driven by interna- tional and regional human rights conventions and campaigns (figure 1.15). Protection orders: Making laws more effective Protection orders are among the most effective remedies avail- able to victims of violence.36 A 2009 study conducted in the United States, shows that protection orders are effective in re- ducing violence while increasing the victim’s safety, and further have a positive impact in terms of cost savings for the state. 37 In 124 of 173 economies, victims of domestic violence may seek such measures to limit an abuser’s behavior. Where protection orders exist, they generally allow for removal of the perpetrator from the common home and prohibit contact with the victim. Albania’s Law on Measures against Violence in Family Relations, for example, provides for ordering the perpetrator to leave the common home and pay rent for the victim’s residence. There are similar provisions in 113 other economies covered, and in 94% of the economies that have protection orders, the perpe- trator can be prohibited from contacting the victim. Establishing specialized courts or procedures for domestic vio- lence cases may make legal action more effective. Approaches taken include setting up dedicated courts to handle all domestic violence cases, establishing fast-track procedures or authoriz- ing specific orders of protection for domestic violence cases. For example, Brazil’s Maria da Penha Law provides for the creation of domestic and family violence courts. In Nepal, the supreme court mandated the establishment of fast-track courts in addition to the in-camera hearings that the Domestic Violence Crime and Punishment Act provides for. 38 Of the 173 economies covered, 117 have specialized courts or procedures for domestic violence cases. Sexual harassment Although women are statistically at greater risk of violence from an intimate partner, sexual harassment and other forms of sexual violence are common in many settings. Globally, 7% of women have been sexually assaulted by someone other than a partner. In New Zealand and Australia, 10% to 20% of women have experienced sexual violence from non-partners. 39 Women who have experienced FIGURE 1.15 ECONOMIES INTRODUCING LAWS ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE 0 2 4 6 8 102014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 General Recommendation No. 19 by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against WomenUN Declaration on Elimination of Violence Against Women Belém do Para ConventionBeijing Platform for Action CEDAW Optional Protocol Maputo Protocol Istanbul Convention UN Secretary-General's Campaign "UNiTE to End Violence against Women” Council of Europe initiates Campaign to Combat Violence against Women and Domestic Violence Source: Women, Business and the law database. 23 Key Findings Key Findings this are 2.3 times more likely to have alcohol use disorders and 2.6 times more likely to suffer from depression or anxiety.40 Sexual harassment is a common form of sexual violence against women. It affects women and girls not only at work and in edu- cational institutions but also in public places. Within European Union economies, for example, 40% to 50% of women have experienced unwanted sexual advances, physical contact or other forms of sexual harassment at work. 41 Women, Business and the Law data show that 41 economies out of the 173 examined have no laws against sexual harass- ment. Where laws do exist, they vary in the areas covered, such as employment, education and public places. Specific provi- sions covering sexual harassment in employment are the most common, having been enacted in 114 economies. Laws on sexual harassment in education are less common: only 52 economies specifically protect girls from sexual harassment in schools. And only 18 economies specifically protect women from sexual harassment in public places. These laws are most prevalent in South Asia and the Middle East and North Africa (figure 1.16). The French government recently unveiled mea- sures to curb sexual harassment in public transportation after a poll in which 100% of women surveyed said they had been confronted with the problem. Measures include introducing an emergency telephone number to report harassment and the creation of an app to geo-locate reported incidents. 42 Recently, Egypt amended its criminal code to apply to sexual harassment. Peru introduced legislation on sexual harassment in public spaces, and Mozambique introduced legislation on sexual harassment in education. Where laws fail to fully protect women In recent years, regional and international human rights instru- ments have recognized the need for legal protection and called for enactment of laws covering all forms of violence against women. Despite progress, however, some economies still have no legal protections against domestic violence or sexual harass- ment. Women, Business and the Law data show that 18 econo- mies have no legislation in either area: Afghanistan; Cameroon; Chad; Republic of Congo; Djibouti; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Guinea; Haiti; Islamic Republic of Iran; Liberia; Mali; Mauritania; Oman; Russia; South Sudan; Swaziland; and Uzbekistan. FIGURE 1.16 SEXUAL HARASSMENT LAWS, BY PERCENTAGE OF ECONOMIES IN A REGION Middle East & North AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaEast Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & CaribbeanSouth Asia OECD high income94 53 9 25 6 4 6 12 2150 38 26 22 17 1163 66 74 67 61 21 Law on sexual harassment in employment Law on sexual harassment in educationLaw on sexual harassment in public places Source: Women, Business and the Law database. Note: Data indicate percentage of economies in a region with legislation. Women, Business and the Law 201624 Notes 1 World Bank 2011; UN Women 2015. 2 Miller 2008. 3 Historical Data: 50 Years of Women’s Rights data, Women, Business and the Law, available at: http://wbl.worldbank.org/ data/timeseries. 4 Demirguc-Kunt, Klapper and Singer 2013. 5 Chattopadhyay and Duflo 2004. 6 Chen 2010. 7 Credit Suisse 2012. 8 “Boards without Women Breed Scandal,” Sophia Grene and Chris Newlands, Financial Times, March 8, 2015, http://www.ft .com/intl/cms/s/0/cdb790f8-c33d-11e4-ac3d-00144feab7de .html#axzz3k2S6jnmR. 9 The European Commission proposed a Directive to increase gen- der parity on corporate boards. The Commission, with the support of the European Parliament, recommends the adoption of binding legislation introducing measures to achieve representation of 40% of the under-represented sex in non-executive positions on the boards of publicly listed companies (excluding small and medium enterprises), though the directive does not use the word quota, instead recommending that companies establish criteria to attain the percentage. Member states would have to meet the target by 2020. 10 Allendorf 2007; Duflo 2003; Swaminathan, Lahoti and Suchitra, 2012. 11 Friedemann-Sánchez 2008; Deere and León 2001, 2003. 12 Deere and León 2003; Quisumbing and Hallman 2005; Deere and Doss 2006. 13 Ali, Deininger and Goldstein 2015. 14 Goldstein and Udry 2008. 15 FAO 2011. 16 Oduro 2014. 17 Deininger, Goyal and Nagarajan 2010; Deininger and others 2014. 18 World Bank 2013. 19 Note that Global Findex data do not distinguish between joint and individual bank accounts, so it is impossible to say whether a woman shares a bank account with her husband or has her own account. 20 Lebedev and Radevich 2014; Oglobin 1999. 21 Decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 21 May 2009 N KAC09-196 available at: http://www.consultant.ru /document/cons_doc_LAW_88941/. 22 “Global Banking Alliance for Women Announces Partnership to Close Gender Data Gap in Finance,” Multilateral Investment Fund, New York, December 15, 2014, http://www.fomin.org/en-us /Home/News/PressReleases/ArtMID/3819/ArticleID/2769/Global -Banking-Alliance-for-Women-announces-partnership-to-close -gender-data-gap-in-finance.aspx. 23 “Lindy Boggs, Longtime Representative and Champion of Women, Is Dead at 97,” Douglas Martin, New York Times, July 27, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/28/us/politics/lindy-boggs -longtime-representative-from-louisiana-dies-at-97.html?_r=1. 24 Sex Discrimination Act 1984, Sec. 22. 25 UN Women 2011. 26 Peresie 2005. 27 Hallward-Driemeier and Hasan 2012. 28 Gloppen and Kanyongolo 2007. 29 Djankov, La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes and Shleifer 2003. 30 Zucker and Herr 2003. 31 Yew 2008. 32 Klugman et al. 2014. 33 Klugman et al. 2014. 34 WHO 2013. 35 WHO 2013. 36 United Nations 2010. 37 Logan, Walker, Hoyt and Faragher 2009. 38 “Nepal: Fast-Track Courts Ordered for Cases Involving Women, Children,” The Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/lawweb /servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l205401837_text. 39 United Nations 2006. 40 WHO 2013. 41 United Nations 2006. 42 “France Unveils Plan to Tackle Sexual Harassment,” The Local, July 9, 2015, http://www.thelocal.fr/20150709 /france-to-tackle-sexual-harassment-on-transport. 25 Key Findings Key Findings References Ali, Daniel, Klaus Deininger, Markus Goldstein and Eliana La Ferrara. 2015. 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World Economic Forum. 2014. The Global Gender Gap Report 2014. Cologny, Switzerland: WEF. WHO (World Health Organization). 2013. Global and Regional Estimates of Violence Against Women Prevalence and Health Effects of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-Partner Sexual Violence. Geneva: WHO. Yew, Gary Chan Kok. 2008. “Access to Justice for the Poor: The Singapore Judiciary at Work.” Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal 17 (3): 595-648. Zucker, Bruce, and Monica Herr. 2003. “The People’s Court Examined: A Legal and Empirical Analysis of the Small Claims Court System.” University of San Francisco Law Review 37 (2): 315-50. 27 About Women, Business and the Law About Women, Business and the LawGETTING TO EQUAL 2. About Women, Business and the Law Though legal gender parity has improved around the world, ma- jor differences persist. Many laws continue to prevent women from improving their own well-being and that of their families by working or running a business. Datasets such as the World Bank Group’s Enterprise Surveys and Doing Business have led the way in providing informa- tion on the challenges confronting firms and entrepreneurs in starting and expanding their businesses and creating jobs. 1 But women often face additional constraints in starting businesses and navigating the workforce. How can governments improve women’s access to entrepre- neurial and employment activities? Answering that question requires understanding many factors—from access to educa- tion and healthcare, to social and cultural norms, and many things beyond. One important factor is how laws, regulations and institutions differentiate between women and men in ways that affect women’s incentives or capacity to work or to set up and run a business. Since its inception in 2009, Women, Business and the Law has collected unique data on laws and regulations constraining women’s entrepreneurship and employment. The dataset illu- minates how government policies limit women’s full economic participation through unequal laws and a business environment which does not adequately support the businesses women tend to concentrate in. By gathering and analyzing comprehensive quantitative data to compare legal gender differences across economies and over time, Women, Business, and the Law offers objective and mea- surable benchmarks for assessing where reforms have occurred that can also be helpful in measuring global progress toward legal gender equality (box 2.1). BOX 2.1 BEIJING + 20: MEASURING PROGRESS TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY Twenty years ago, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action brought together over 17,000 participants from across the world to promote women’s empowerment and equality. The Platform for Action marked an ambitious agenda to advance women’s rights in a variety of areas, such as power and decision-making, the girl child, the economy, poverty, violence, human rights and education. Every five years in the ensuing two decades, the Commission on the Status of Women has reviewed progress on the Platform. Leading up to the Commission’s 59th session in March 2015, a majority of UN member states reviewed the status of national implementation to guide the Commission in adopting a post-2015 agenda. Positive outcomes were observed on poverty reduction, female political and economic participation and reforms conferring equal legal rights to men and women. Moreover, the gender gap in primary education has nearly closed globally. Concerns remain on the disproportionate impact of poverty on women, who are also more likely to do unpaid care and domestic work than men and are often paid less in formal employment. Discriminatory legislation, particularly in the area of family law, persists. And despite legislative advances, violence against women and girls is still a major problem in all regions. Worldwide an estimated 35% of women have been victims of intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual abuse. However, women also face many other forms of violence, including through early and forced marriage. The Beijing Platform continues to serve as a landmark document setting out key issues on women’s rights and reforms that have yet to be achieved. Sources: UN Economic and Social Council 2014; UN Economic and Social Council 2013/18: Future Organization and Methods of Work of the Commission on the Status of Women, Resolution adopted by the Economic and Social Council, July 24, 2013; WHO 2013. Women, Business and the Law 201628 Women, Business and the Law 2016, the fourth in a series, provides data on legal and regulatory barriers to women’s en- trepreneurship and employment in 173 economies, up from 143 covered in the 2014 edition (table 2.1). This expansion enhances the global data on laws and regula- tions that affect women’s prospects as entrepreneurs and employees while also making it easier to compare economies. The inclusion of 30 additional economies will further inform re- search and policy discussions on improving women’s economic opportunities and outcomes. What does Women, Business and the Law measure? Women, Business and the Law 2016 provides quantitative measures of laws and regulations that affect women’s eco- nomic opportunities in seven areas: accessing institutions, us- ing property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, going to court, building credit and protecting women from violence. 2 %Accessing institutions explores women’s legal ability to interact with public authorities and the private sector in the same ways as men. This indicator provides disag- gregated information on 11 categories of legal ability, highlighting differences between married and unmarried women. It also assesses constitutional protections from discrimination and the use of gender quotas in govern- ment and the private sector. This edition expands the cov- erage on quotas to political party candidate lists. 3 %Using property analyzes women’s ability to own, manage, control and inherit property. It also examines women’s ownership rights in the marital home and whether legis- lation accounts for nonmonetary contributions, such as unpaid care for children or the elderly. %Getting a job assesses restrictions on women’s work, such as prohibitions on working at night or in certain industries. This indicator also covers laws on work-related maternity, paternity and parental benefits and retirement ages. %Providing incentives to work examines personal income tax liabilities, taking into account tax credits and deduc- tions that may differ for women and men. This indicator covers both taxation and such public services as childcare and education. %Going to court examines access to small claims courts, whether women’s testimony in court is given the same evidentiary weight as that of men, and the number of women justices—including chief justices—in constitutional courts. %Building credit identifies the minimum value of loans tracked by private credit bureaus and public credit reg- istries and assesses bureaus and registries that collect TABLE 2.1 EXPANDED GEOGRAPHIC COVERAGE Region Economies previously in the dataset Economies added to the dataset East Asia & PacificCambodia; China; Fiji; Hong Kong SAR, China; Indonesia; Lao PDR; Malaysia; Mongolia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Taiwan, China; Thailand; VietnamBrunei Darussalam; Myanmar; Timor-Leste; Tonga Europe & Central AsiaAlbania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, FYR; Moldova; Montenegro; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Tajikistan; Turkey; Ukraine; Uzbekistan0 OECD high incomeAustralia; Austria; Belgium; Canada; Chile; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Korea, Rep.; Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom; United StatesLuxembourg Latin America & CaribbeanArgentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Puerto Rico (U.S.); Uruguay; Venezuela, RBAntigua and Barbuda; Bahamas, The; Barbados; Belize; Dominica; Grenada; Guyana; St. Kitts and Nevis; St. Lucia; St. Vincent and the Grenadines; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago Middle East & North AfricaAlgeria; Egypt, Arab Rep.; Iran, Islamic Rep.; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Morocco; Oman; Saudi Arabia; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; United Arab Emirates; West Bank and Gaza; Yemen, Rep. Bahrain; Djibouti; Iraq; Malta; Qatar South AsiaBangladesh; India; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka Afghanistan; Bhutan; Maldives Sub-Saharan AfricaAngola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Chad; Congo, Dem. Rep.; Congo, Rep.; Côte d’Ivoire; Ethiopia; Gabon; Ghana; Guinea; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sierra Leone; Senegal; South Africa; Sudan; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; ZimbabweEquatorial Guinea; São Tomé and Príncipe; Seychelles; South Sudan; Swaziland 29 About Women, Business and the Law About Women, Business and the Law information from microfinance institutions, retailers and utility companies. This edition expands coverage to legis- lation on nondiscrimination in access to credit on the basis of gender and marital status. %Protecting women from violence examines laws on do- mestic violence against women and the existence and scope of laws on sexual harassment. This edition expands coverage to whether women are protected from marital rape, what the legal age of marriage is for boys and girls and whether protection orders can be authorized. 4 Women, Business and the Law presents two main types of indicators: those which capture legislation with direct gender dimensions and are based on a reading of laws from the per- spective of women, and those which are not gender-specific but favor inclusiveness by supporting the businesses women tend to concentrate in—smaller, informal and more likely to be home-based. Why this focus? Gender equality favors a variety of positive development out- comes. Women tend to spend more household income on benefits for their families, such as children’s nutrition, health and education, while men spend more on private goods. 5 Such spending patterns raise living standards and expand the pool of potential contributions to economic growth. 6 For instance, in- creased access to education for girls is one of many factors that brings down fertility rates. 7 When fertility rates are lower, rates of human capital and per capita income growth rise, creating a positive economic effect. 8 Thus, economies that integrate women into the workforce could experience higher economic growth. Conversely, restrictions on women’s ability to work may have negative effects on prosperity. 9 Legal gender differences are estimated to significantly decrease female labor force participation and undermine GDP growth. 10 The World Bank’s World Development Report on Gender Equality and Development estimated that eliminating barriers discriminating against women working in certain sectors or occupations could increase labor productivity by as much as 25% in some economies, simply by increasing women’s labor force participation. 11 This would also contribute to higher GDP growth. Research shows that legal gender equality is associated with lower gender gaps in labor force participation without any significant effect on male participation rates. 12 Gender gaps in women’s entrepreneurship and labor force par- ticipation account for estimated income losses of 27% in the Middle East and North Africa, 19% in South Asia, 14% in Latin America and the Caribbean and 10% in Europe. 13 Worldwide, if all women were excluded from the labor force, income per capita would be nearly 40% lower. 14 Similarly, it is predicted that in Bangladesh increasing the female labor force participa- tion rate over the next decade from 34% to 82%, the current rate of male participation, would add 1.8 percentage points to potential GDP growth each year and help to lift the country to medium-income level by 2021. 15 To achieve this, policies should go beyond anti-poverty programs to focus on childcare, trans- portation and removing legal restrictions on women’s work. 16 The Women, Business and the Law indicators build on the growing body of research and empirical evidence that stresses the importance of legal and institutional frameworks in shaping women’s economic opportunities and improving gender equal- ity (table 2.2). Research has called into question the notion that economic growth alone increases gender equality. Rather, continuous policy commitments to gender equality might be required to achieve it. 17 What does Women, Business and the Law not measure? Equal opportunities for women in business and the workplace depend on an interplay of economic, social and cultural fac- tors. For example, unless women have opportunities to get an education or build their skills, equalizing laws affecting entre- preneurship and employment mean little. Equalizing the ability to work might not result in more women entering the workforce if they are still expected to be the primary caregivers for their children and access to childcare is limited. Other factors, such as infrastructure—for example, safe transportation, might also affect women’s ability and desire to work in certain locations or at night. While recognizing that many issues affect women’s economic opportunities, Women, Business and the Law focuses on the formal legal and regulatory environment that determines whether women can open their own businesses or work. Not everything of importance is covered by the indicators. Rather, the report is concerned with the laws governing the formal economy. Though most women in developing economies start businesses or work in the informal economy, a goal of this proj- ect is to define some of the features of the legal framework which make it more difficult for women to transition from the informal to the formal economy. Customary law can exist in parallel with formal legal regimes. Where these systems exist together, customary law can deter- mine a woman’s rights in marriage or to property and inheri- tance, which are often different from the rights the statutory legal system grants. Women, Business and the Law tries to partially cover customary law by examining its constitutional treatment. In particular, the data examine whether customary law is exempt from constitutional provisions on nondiscrimina- tion and equality. Actual application of customary law is not covered because it is often uncodified, which makes it difficult to define its rules. In Sub-Saharan Africa customary law plays a Women, Business and the Law 201630 larger role than in other regions, therefore the results should be interpreted bearing this in mind. While focusing on written legislation, the report recognizes the often large gaps between the laws on the books and actual practice: women do not always have access to the equality which formal laws establish. One reason for this may be poor implementation of legislation due to weak enforcement or de- sign, or low capacity. Identifying legal differences is one step toward better under- standing where women’s economic rights may be restricted in practice. Of the countries covered by the report, only the Islamic Republic of Iran, Sudan, Tonga and the United States are not parties to the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. 18 Thus, most women in the economies covered should have access to formal equality. But as the report shows, that is not the case in the majority of economies. Methodological strengths and limitations The Women, Business and the Law methodology was designed to be an easily replicable way to benchmark the legal and regu- latory environment for women as entrepreneurs and employ- ees. This approach has advantages and limitations that should be understood when using the data. A key consideration for the project is that the indicators are comparable in economies across the globe. The indicators are based on standardized assumptions. One, for instance, is that the location of the woman in question is the largest business city of the economy. However, in reality legislation may differ within federal economies, where laws affecting women can vary by state. Even in non-federal economies, women in rural areas and small towns may face more restrictive local legislation. In addition, where several sets of personal law 19 prescribe dif- ferent rights and obligations for different groups of women, the TABLE 2.2 WOMEN, BUSINESS AND THE LAW INDICATORS AND ASSOCIATED RESEARCH Indicator Associated research Accessing institutions In 2000 Ethiopia revised its Family Code. Among other things, the reform eliminated a husband’s ability to stop his wife from working. Though the reform has been implemented throughout Ethiopia, it was first introduced in three regions and two cities. Two nationally representative surveys, one before the reform and the other five years later, allowed researchers to estimate its impact. Where the reform occurred, women’s labor force participation and work outside the home increased. Women were also more likely to work full-time and in higher-skilled jobs. a Using propertyThe World Bank Voice and Agency study found a close relationship between marital property regimes and women’s reported owner- ship of housing or land.b Not only are secure property rights important for women’s welfare but the structure of marital property regimes also has a significant influence on the distribution of wealth within families.c  Getting a jobRestrictions on the hours women work or the industries they can work in also limit their ability to get the jobs they want and their earning potential. The Russian Federation had a high gender earnings differential during its transition to a market economy largely because of legal restrictions on the jobs women could perform. d Meanwhile, research shows a strong positive relationship between having legislation on nondiscrimination in hiring on the basis of gender and women’s employment relative to men’s in 58 developing countries. e Providing incentives to workPersonal income tax liability can affect workers’ decisions about how much or whether to work. Women, particularly those who are married, are more negatively affected by income tax rules.f In contrast, support for mothers—such as tax credits and the availability of childcare—increases women’s participation in the labor force.g Building creditThe gender asset gap can undermine women’s bargaining power and capacity to engage in economic activities.h Access to formal credit relies heavily on asset-based lending.i For instance, banks in Ghana greatly prefer land and buildings as collateral,j but where women have more limited access to property, they have less ability to use property as collateral, limiting their access to credit.k That is why reputation collateral, such as a record of successful repayments to microfinance institutions or retailers, may help women build their credit histories and ultimately access finance. Going to courtBoth direct and incidental legal formalities and litigation costs discourage poor people—regardless of their gender—from accessing courts.l Even for relatively simple disputes, legal formalities are associated with less contract enforcement, longer cases and percep- tions of lower-quality justice.m One-stop shops such as small claims courts can improve access to justice for both men and women.n Protecting women from violenceIn economies where there is a high prevalence of violence against women, women are less likely to have formal accounts, savings or credit.o In Tanzania, for example, women in formal wage work who are exposed to severe partner violence earn 60 percent less than women who are not exposed to such violence.p a Hallward-Driemeier and Gajigo 2010. b World Bank 2014. c Deere et al. 2013. d Oglobin 2005. e Amin and Islam 2015. f Eissa 1995; Eissa and Hoynes 2004; Eissa, Kleven and Kreiner 2008. g Averett, Peters and Waldman 1997; Baker, Gruber and Milligan 2008. h Deere and León 2003; Quisumbing and Hallman 2005; Deere and Doss 2006; Fletschner and Kenney 2014. i IFC 2011. j Law and Development Partnership 2011. k IFC 2011. l Gloppen and Kanyongolo 2007. m Djankov and others 2003. n UN Women 2011. o Demirguc-Kunt, Klapper and Singer 2013. p World Bank 2014. 31 About Women, Business and the Law About Women, Business and the Law data focus on the most populous group, which may mean that restrictions that apply only to minority populations are missed. A detailed explanation of the report’s methodology and recent changes to it—including all the questions asked and assump- tions made—is provided in the data notes. Women, Business and the Law recognizes the limitations of standardized assumptions, but while such assumptions come at the expense of specificity, they also help ensure data compa- rability. The dataset does not include qualitative assessments. Outcome variables, such as female labor force participation rates, also are not part of the dataset, though they are used in analysis for this report. The dataset complements a number of other sets of gender indicators which are constructed using both outcome variables and in some cases qualitative assessments (box 2.2). These indices take different approaches to developing gender indica- tors and present different views of women’s position in society. However, Women, Business and the Law is one of the only global datasets measuring gender gaps in policies using quan- titative, objective data. Rules and regulations are directly controlled by policy makers— and they are often where policy makers start when they set out to change the incentives that govern women’s economic lives. Women, Business and the Law not only shows where gender differences exist in the law, it also points to specific laws which may lend themselves to reform. Its quantitative measures support research on how specific regulations affect women’s incentives to participate in economic activity. Moreover, the dataset is regularly updated every two years, making it possible to analyze variations over time. How are the data collected? The Women, Business and the Law data are based on domestic laws and regulations. The data cover small economies and some of the poorest economies, for which little or no data are avail- able in other data sets. The new areas of coverage are based on consultations across the World Bank Group, including with the Gender and Jobs Cross-Cutting Solutions Areas and the Finance and Markets; Governance; Poverty; Social Protection and Labor; Trade and Competiveness; and Urban, Rural and Social Development Global Practices. The report’s indicators were constructed based on responses from practitioners with expertise in family, labor and criminal law, including lawyers, judges, academics and members of civil society organizations working on gender issues. The data were collected through several rounds of interaction with these re- spondents—through responses to questionnaires, conference calls, written correspondence and visits by the team (figure 2.1). The data in this report, covering May 2013 to April 2015, were collected between September 2014 and April 2015 and are current as of April 2015. Besides filling out written questionnaires, Women, Business and the Law respondents provide references to the relevant laws and regulations. The Women, Business and the Law team col- lects the texts of the relevant laws and regulations and checks questionnaire responses for accuracy. Questionnaire responses are verified against codified sources of national law including constitutions, codes, laws, statutes, rules, regulations and pro- cedures, in areas such as labor, social security, civil procedure, tax, violence against women, marriage and family, inheritance, nationality and land. Doing Business 2016 surveys are also used to develop some questions in the building credit indicator. BOX 2.2 OTHER GLOBAL GENDER INDICATORS ÜThe Global Gender Gap Index, published by the World Economic Forum, examines gender inequalities in 142 economies using criteria based on economics, politics, education and health. This index uses mainly quantitative outcome variables, such as the ratio of female to male labor force participation. ÜThe Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) is a composite measure based on the Gender, Institutions and Development Database produced by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The SIGI, which scores 160 economies on discrimination in social institutions, is an unweighted average of five sub-indices: discriminatory family code, restricted physical integrity, son bias, restricted resources and assets and restricted civil liberties. The data are both quantitative and qualitative. ÜThe United Nations Gender Inequality Index (GII) provides a composite measure of gender disparity for 187 economies. This index identifies five indicators in three areas: reproductive health, empowerment (as measured by educational attainment and parliamentary representation) and the labor market. The indicators are based on quantitative outcome variables. ÜThe United Nations Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) adds a gender lens to data gathered for the UN Human Development Index in order to account for gender differences in development outcomes such as health, education and control over economic resources. The indicators are based on quantitative outcome variables and cover 187 economies. Women, Business and the Law 201632 Women, Business and the Law requires each legal data point to have a citable legal source, and sources for every data point are posted on the project website (http://wbl.worldbank.org) to ensure that the data are transparent. More detailed data on each economy, including links to the legal sources, are also provided on the website. Feedback is welcome on all aspects of the report and can be offered through the website. Because of the data verification and quality assurance pro- cess, the role of contributors centers on helping the Women, Business and the Law team find and understand relevant laws and regulations. Women, Business and the Law can be used to raise aware- ness, inform policy discussions on gender differences in laws and encourage policymakers to take action to build up women’s economic opportunities. The report is also designed to be used to further research into each economy and across economies on the links between legal gender differences and outcomes for women. What’s next? Future editions of this report will seek to expand or refine cur- rent indicators in light of emerging research on gender equality. Beyond what is already covered for the providing incentives to work and getting a job indicators, forthcoming reports may ex- pand the data to cover such areas as the care economy, includ- ing childcare, as well as rules governing part-time work where women tend to be concentrated. More information will also be gathered on how men and women obtain birth certificates for their children—an essential precursor to obtaining any identity document. Processes for registering property that may dispro- portionately help women will also be examined, as will the exis- tence of collateral registries. Finally, further work will be carried out on how taxation affects women’s inclusion in the economy. As progress is monitored on the seven indicators, it will become possible to identify which economies are more active in chang- ing laws affecting women’s economic participation over time, and what effect this has on economic outcomes for women. FIGURE 2.1 HOW WOMEN, BUSINESS AND THE LAW DATA ARE COLLECTED The team consults with gender experts, academics, civil society organizations and colleagues in the World Bank Group on which new areas should be covered. The team develops questionnaires and sends them to private sector practitioners, civil society organizations and government officials such as judges. The team analyzes the data and writes the report. Comments on the data and the report are received from across the World Bank Group through an internal review process.The updated dataset is released and the report is published and disseminated through a series of events. The team analyzes the relevant laws and regulations along with the information in the questionnaires. 33 About Women, Business and the Law About Women, Business and the Law Notes 1 See World Bank, Enterprise Surveys, http://www .enterprisesurveys.org; and World Bank Group, Doing Business, http://www.doingbusiness.org. 2 The protecting women from violence indicator was piloted in the 2014 report for a subset of 100 economies. Data covered laws, regulations and institutions that deal with domestic violence and sexual harassment. For this edition the data have expanded to all 173 economies and cover additional areas of violence against women. 3 Candidate list quotas require that political party candidate lists contain a minimum percentage of women eligible for election. Data coverage was expanded to candidate list quotas to capture different types of quota systems applicable for women. 4 A protection order is issued by a court or judge to protect a victim from harassment or abuse. Such orders may prohibit a perpetrator of domestic violence from contacting or harming the victim. 5 Duflo and Udry 2004; Robinson 2012; Duflo 2012. 6 Krogh, Hansen, Wendt and Elkjaer 2009. 7 Lagerlöf 2003. 8 Lagerlöf 2003. 9 Aguirre, Hoteit, Rupp and Sabbagh 2012. 10 Gonzales, Jain-Chandra, Kochhar and Newiak 2015. 11 World Bank 2011. 12 Gonzales, Jain-Chandra, Kochhar and Newiak 2015. 13 Cuberes and Teignier 2014. 14 Cuberes and Teignier 2014. 15 Hussain 2015. 16 Hussain 2015. 17 Duflo 2012; Kabeer et al. 2013. 18 The United States has signed but not ratified the convention. 19 Personal law refers to non-customary legal systems that stem from tradition or doctrinal texts, which are sometimes uncodified. 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Review and Appraisal of the Implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the Outcomes of the Twenty-third Special Session of the General Assembly. Report of the Secretary- General, 15 December 2014. UN Women (United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women). 2011. Progress of the World’s Women 2011–2012: In Pursuit of Justice. New York: UN Women. WHO (World Health Organization). 2013. Global and Regional Estimates of Violence against Women: Prevalence and Health Effects of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-Intimate Partner Sexual Violence. Geneva: WHO. World Bank. 2011. World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. New York: Oxford University Press. 35 Reform Summaries Reform Summaries GETTING TO EQUAL 3. Summaries of Women, Business and the Law Reforms Women, Business and the Law reforms that affected all indica- tors, covering the period from May 2013 through April 2015:  Reform increasing gender parity oReform neutral to gender parity  Reform decreasing gender parity Albania  Getting a job Albania is gradually removing gender differences in retire- ment ages for men and women so that they are equal by 2056.  Protecting women from violence Albania added criminal sanctions for sexual harassment to its penal code. Belarus  Getting a job Belarus reduced the number of professions in which female work is prohibited from 252 to 182. Further, the Labor Code no longer distinguishes between prenatal and postnatal maternity leave, which gives mothers more flexibility about how to take their leave.  Building credit Belarus adopted a new law in 2014 that mandates micro finance institutions to report data on credit history to the national credit bureau.  Providing incentives to work Belarus introduced additional non-tax-related benefits for the state allowance to families with children.  Protecting women from violence Belarus adopted a law on domestic violence that criminalizes physical, sexual and psychological violence and establishes specialized procedures for cases of domestic violence, in- cluding provisions for protection orders. Belgium  Protecting women from violence Belgium introduced civil remedies for victims of sexual ha- rassment in the workplace. Chad  Going to court Chad raised the maximum amount for the small claims court. Chile  Accessing institutions Chile enacted an electoral reform ensuring a 40% quota for women at the national level. Colombia  Going to court Colombia raised the maximum amount for small claims eli- gible for a fast-track procedure. Congo, Rep.  Accessing institutions Republic of Congo increased its candidate list quotas for women from 15% to 30% for elections at the national level. Women, Business and the Law 201636 Costa Rica  Going to court Costa Rica raised the maximum amount for the small claims court. Croatia  Using property Croatia introduced special provisions on transactions related to the marital home: written spousal consent is required to alienate or encumber property that is used as a family home.  o Getting a job Croatia increased the length of paid parental leave from 90 to 120 days per person. Croatia is also gradually raising the retirement and early pensionable ages for both men and women. Egypt, Arab Rep.  Accessing institutions The Arab Republic of Egypt added “sex” as a protected cat- egory in the nondiscrimination clause in its new constitution. The constitution also introduced reserved seat quotas for women in parliament (10%) and on local councils (25%). oGoing to court The constitution altered the composition of the constitu- tional court.  Protecting women from violence The Arab Republic of Egypt adopted a law which criminalizes sexual harassment in employment, education and public spaces. Fiji  Accessing institutions Fiji adopted a new constitution which no longer recog- nizes customary law as a source of law. Previously cus- tomary law was exempt from constitutional provisions on nondiscrimination.  Going to court The new constitution also establishes that the Supreme Court may review any matter concerning the application or interpretation of the constitution. Georgia  Getting a job Georgia increased the length of paid maternity leave from 126 to 183 days. It also increased the length of unpaid maternity leave from 351 to 547 days.  Protecting women from violence Georgia amended its criminal code to explicitly penalize marital rape. The code also provides for removal of a per- petrator of domestic violence from the home and calls for criminal sanctions for the forced marriage of a minor. Germany  Accessing institutions Germany introduced a 30% quota for women on corporate boards. Guinea  Getting a job Guinea’s new labor code mandates nondiscrimination in hir- ing based on gender. Haiti  Accessing institutions A new electoral law provides that in Haiti one of three city council members must be a woman. Hong Kong SAR, China  Getting a job Hong Kong SAR, China introduced three days of paid paternity leave. Hungary  Using property Hungary reformed the family law section of its civil code. It added new provisions that prevent either spouse from disposing of the marital home while property is held in com- munity and requires the consent of the other spouse even after dissolution of the marriage until the right of tenancy is settled.  Protecting women from violence Economic violence is now criminalized as a form of domestic violence. 37 Reform Summaries Reform Summaries India  Accessing institutions India introduced a quota on female representation on cor- porate boards: at least one board member of every listed company must be a woman. Iran, Islamic Rep.  Getting a job Islamic Republic of Iran increased the length of paid mater- nity leave from 180 to 270 days and introduced 14 days of paid paternity leave. Israel  Getting a job Israel introduced three days of unpaid paternity leave.  Protecting women from violence Israel raised the age of marriage for girls from 17 to 18. Italy  Protecting women from violence In Italy economic violence is now criminalized as a form of domestic violence and a specialized procedure is established to hear such cases. Jamaica  Getting a job Jamaica repealed legislation that had restricted night work for women.  Building credit Jamaica also has a new credit bureau which reports loans smaller than 1% GNI per capita. Kazakhstan  Going to court Kazakhstan adopted a fast-track procedure for claims of a small value in its civil code.  Getting a job Kazakhstan is gradually removing gender differences in retirement ages for men and women so that they are equal by 2027. Kenya  Using property Kenya’s new law on matrimonial property makes partial community of property the standard regime. Both spouses now have equal rights to administering joint property. oGetting a job Kenya raised the age at which both men and women can retire and receive benefits to 60.  Protecting women from violence Kenya’s new marriage act stipulates that the minimum legal age of marriage for both boys and girls is 18 and marriages that violate the age requirement are void. The law also es- tablishes criminal penalties for underage marriage. Korea, Rep. oProtecting women from violence The Republic of Korea lowered the age of majority, and therefore the age at which boys and girls can get married without parental consent, from 20 to 19. Lao PDR  Providing incentives to work The Lao People’s Democratic Republic enacted a new labor code which introduces leave to care for family members.   Getting a job The Lao People’s Democratic Republic also introduced three days of paid paternity leave and increased the length of paid maternity leave from 90 to 105 days. However, the new labor code does not mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value, as was previously the case.  Building credit The Lao People’s Democratic Republic lowered to zero the minimum loan amount for inclusion in the credit registry. Women, Business and the Law 201638 Latvia  Getting a job Latvia increased the percentage of wages paid by the government during maternity and paternity leave from 68% to 80%.  Protecting women from violence For the first time Latvia adopted legislation on domestic violence. It comprehensively defines all forms of domestic violence and protects spouses, former spouses, partners in nonmarital intimate relationships and family members. A special procedure to hear these cases was also introduced. Lebanon  Getting a job Lebanon increased the length of paid maternity leave from 49 to 70 days.  Protecting women from violence For the first time Lebanon adopted legislation on domestic violence. The law defines all forms of domestic violence and establishes clear criminal penalties. It protects spouses and family members and allows victims to apply for protection orders that can provide for removal of the perpetrator from the home and prohibition of contact with the survivor. It sets out a special procedure to hear these cases. Lesotho oAccessing institutions Lesotho introduced national ID cards. The application pro- cess is the same for men and women. Luxembourg  Protecting women from violence Luxembourg raised the age of marriage for girls from 16 to 18. Macedonia, FYR  Getting a job The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia introduced 90 days of unpaid parental leave.  Protecting women from violence It also passed a law on domestic violence which for the first time includes economic violence and a special procedure for domestic violence cases. Malawi  Providing incentives to work Malawi’s new education act provides for free and compul- sory primary education.  Protecting women from violence The legal age of marriage has been raised for both boys and girls to 18. Mauritius  Getting a job Mauritius now mandates equal remuneration for work of equal value. Mexico  Accessing institutions Mexico increased gender quotas for party lists in federal district elections from 46% to 50%, and also introduced the requirement that male and female candidates alternate placement on the list.  Building Credit Mexico facilitated women’s access to credit by amending its legislation to provide for equality between men and women when accessing goods and services.  Providing incentives to work Mexico has a new law that makes payments for childcare tax-deductible. Mongolia  Building credit Credit reports in Mongolia now include negative payment information for communications services as well as full pay- ment history for mobile phone leasing. Mozambique  Protecting women from violence Mozambique enacted a new penal code which no longer allows charges for rape to be dropped when the perpetrator marries the victim. The code also incorporates protections against sexual harassment in education. 39 Reform Summaries Reform Summaries New Zealand  Getting a job New Zealand increased the length of paid maternity leave from 98 to 112 days.  Protecting women from violence It also introduced legislation to address economic violence as a form of domestic violence. Nicaragua  Accessing institutions Nicaragua reformed its family code to give married men and women equal rights to be head of family and to choose the marital home.  Using property The new family code of Nicaragua makes separation of prop- erty the default regime and repeals the provisions that gave judges decision-making power about ownership of assets in case of disagreement between spouses. Thus, when prop- erty is divided, all separate property remains with its owner and assets over which spouses disagreed are presumed to be jointly owned in equal shares.  Getting a job Nicaragua introduced five days of paid paternity leave.  Protecting women from violence The new family code of Nicaragua also raised the minimum age of marriage for both boys and girls from 14 to 16. Niger  Accessing institutions Niger reformed its nationality law to allow both men and women to pass on their citizenship to foreign spouses. It also raised the reserved seat quota for women at the national and local levels to 15%. Norway  Accessing institutions Norway amended its constitution to include an equality provision. oGetting a job Though the total length of parental leave remains the same, Norway changed the allocations for mothers and fathers. Oman  Providing incentives to work Oman introduced free and compulsory primary education. Pakistan  Accessing institutions Pakistan introduced a 22% quota for women in local governments.  Protecting women from violence The legal age of marriage for both boys and girls is now set at 18, and there are criminal sanctions for men who contract and anyone who performs, facilitates or permits underage marriage. Papua New Guinea oAccessing institutions Papua New Guinea introduced a national identification sys- tem. The application process for national ID cards is equal for men and women. Peru  Protecting women from violence Peru enacted new legislation covering sexual harassment in public spaces. Poland  Getting a job Poland introduced 182 days of paid parental leave. Portugal oGetting a job Portugal raised the age at which both men and women can retire and receive benefits to 66. São Tomé and Príncipe  Getting a job São Tomé and Príncipe raised the age at which women can retire and receive benefits so that it is now equal with the age at which men can retire and receive benefits. Women, Business and the Law 201640 Saudi Arabia  Accessing institutions Saudi Arabia introduced a 20% quota for women at the national level.  Protecting women from violence Saudi Arabia enacted its first law on domestic violence, which it defines to include physical, sexual and psychological violence. It provides criminal penalties and protects spouses and family members. Senegal  Accessing institutions Senegal reformed its nationality law to grant women the same rights as men to transfer their nationality to their husbands and children. Serbia  Getting a job Serbia is gradually removing gender differences in retire- ment ages for men and women so that they are equal by 2032. It also now obliges employers to provide break time for breast-feeding employees. Seychelles  Building credit Seychelles established a new registry which reports loans smaller than 1% GNI per capita. Singapore  Getting a job Singapore introduced seven days of paid paternity leave and seven days of paid parental leave. Slovenia  o Getting a job Slovenia increased the length of paid paternity leave from 15 to 30 days. It also made parental leave an individual entitlement but did not alter the total amount of days granted to the parents. South Africa  Getting a job South Africa now mandates equal remuneration for work of equal value. St. Vincent and the Grenadines oGetting a job St. Vincent and the Grenadines is gradually increasing the age at which men and women can retire and receive ben- efits to 65. Sudan  Accessing institutions Sudan raised the reserved seat quota for women in national parliament to 30%. Suriname  Accessing institutions Suriname reformed its nationality law to grant women the same rights as men to transfer their nationality to spouses and children. Taiwan, China  Getting a job Taiwan, China increased the length of paid paternity leave from three to five days. It also lifted previous restrictions that prevented women from working in mining, jobs deemed hazardous and occupations that require heavy lifting.  Building credit Taiwan, China’s Joint Credit Information Center is now col- lecting data on payment of utility services as part of the credit information they gather. Tajikistan  Providing incentives to work Tajikistan now provides public childcare services. Thailand  Accessing institutions Thailand’s 2014 Constitution, meant as an interim constitu- tion, addresses mostly the mechanisms of government and no longer includes a nondiscrimination clause. Drafting of a more comprehensive constitution with rights and liberties is currently underway. 41 Reform Summaries Reform Summaries Togo  Accessing institutions Togo reformed its family code to remove the provision that designated husbands to be head of household. Tonga  Protecting women from violence Tonga enacted a new law which covers physical, sexual and economic domestic violence against former and current spouses and family members. The law criminalizes domestic violence, protects women in nonmarital intimate relation- ships and gives access to protection orders through special- ized court procedures. Marital rape is explicitly criminalized. Trinidad and Tobago  Going to court Trinidad and Tobago raised the maximum amount for the small claims court. Tunisia  Accessing institutions Tunisia’s new constitution specifies gender as a protected category in its nondiscrimination clause. Tunisia also intro- duced quotas for candidate lists in national elections.  Going to court The new constitution establishes a court with jurisdiction to examine the constitutionality of laws. Turkey  Providing incentives to work Turkey enacted a new law that introduced one year of pub- licly provided pre-primary services. Uganda oAccessing institutions Uganda introduced national identity cards in 2014. The ap- plication process is the same for men and women. United Kingdom  Getting a job United Kingdom introduced 259 days of paid parental leave. It also introduced 91 days of unpaid parental leave. United Arab Emirates  Building credit In United Arab Emirates the credit registry is now collect- ing data on the payment history of utilities as part of the information they gather. Uruguay  Getting a job Uruguay increased the length of paid maternity leave from 84 to 98 days. It also increased the length of paternity leave from three to seven days. Paternity leave is now paid by the government instead of the employer.  Protecting women from violence Uruguay raised the minimum age of marriage with parental consent for both boys and girls to 16. West Bank and Gaza  Building credit West Bank and Gaza’s credit registry, managed by the Palestine Monetary Authority, has started reporting credit data from one home appliance retailer and one mobile phone utility, in addition to data from banks and microfi- nance institutions. Zambia  Building credit In Zambia, the credit bureau is collecting data from retailers and utility companies as part of the information they gather. Zimbabwe  Protecting women from violence Zimbabwe’s new constitution now prevents child and early marriage by setting the legal age of marriage at 18 for boys and girls. Women, Business and the Law 201642 GETTING TO EQUAL 4. Data Notes Women, Business and the Law highlights legal gender differ- ences worldwide. Specifically, the report examines laws and regulations that affect women’s ability to be entrepreneurs and employees. Legislation can affect women’s economic potential directly and indirectly. Thus, the indicators covered in the re- port capture both laws that directly differentiate between men and women and laws that indirectly have a greater impact on women’s ability to earn an income, start a business or get a job. The Women, Business and the Law project worked with contributors in each of the economies covered to determine the sources of gender differentiation in the law. Data from the surveys were checked for accuracy by referencing primary legal sources to revise or expand the information collected. The data was collected over a two-year period that ended in April 2015. With regard to women’s rights, different economies reflect different cultural norms and values in their legislation. Though there has been progress toward gender parity, restrictions that limit women’s prospects as entrepreneurs and employees re- main. This report provides objective, easily comparable data to inform dialogue and research about women’s economic rights and opportunities. Covering 173 economies, Women, Business and the Law pro- vides comparable data on the following seven areas: %Accessing institutions explores women’s legal ability to interact with public authorities and the private sector in the same ways as men. %Using property analyzes women’s ability to access and use property based on their ability to own, manage, con- trol and inherit it. %Getting a job assesses restrictions on women’s ability to work, such as prohibitions on working at night or in cer- tain occupations. This indicator also covers laws on work- related maternity, paternity and parental benefits, retire- ment age, equal remuneration for work of equal value and nondiscrimination in hiring. %Providing incentives to work examines personal income tax credits and deductions available to women relative to men and the provision of childcare and education services. %Building credit identifies the minimum loan thresholds of private credit bureaus and public credit registries and tracks bureaus and registries that collect information from microfinance institutions, utilities and retailers. %Going to court considers the ease and affordability of ac- cessing justice by examining small claims courts, women’s ability to testify in court and the incidence of women judges on constitutional courts. %Protecting women from violence examines the existence of legislation on domestic violence, sexual harassment, marital rape, age of marriage and protection orders. Since the publication of Women, Business and the Law 2014 there have been methodological changes in the seven indica- tors, both in the number of questions covered and in the way the previously existing questions were analyzed. The principal methodological changes are summarized at the end of this chapter and new questions are footnoted throughout the text. Economy coverage and characteristics The economies covered in this report are listed in table 4.1. This report is global in scope. It builds on the experience of the Doing Business project in developing objective indicators of impediments to entrepreneurship and employment by apply- ing specific analysis to conditions for women. Doing Business analyzes regulations in 189 economies that apply to a busi- ness throughout its life cycle, including start-up and operations, trading across borders, paying taxes and resolving insolvency. As in the Doing Business project, Women, Business and the Law uses formal laws as a starting point for analysis. The report’s indicators were constructed using responses from expert country practitioners in family, labor and criminal law: including lawyers, judges, academics and members of civil so- ciety organizations working on gender issues. The data were collected through several rounds of interaction with these re- spondents, including standardized questionnaires, conference calls, written correspondence and visits by the team. Besides filling out written questionnaires, Women, Business and the Law respondents provide references to the relevant 43 Data Notes Data Notes laws and regulations. The Women, Business and the Law team collects the texts of relevant laws and regulations and checks questionnaire responses for accuracy. Questionnaire responses are verified against codified sources of national law, including constitutions, marriage and family codes, labor laws, passport procedures, citizenship rules, inheritance statutes, tax regula- tions, land laws, gender equality laws, civil procedure rules, electoral laws, social security codes, criminal laws and laws on violence against women. Doing Business 2016 surveys were also used to develop some of the questions in the building credit indicator. Women, Business and the Law requires each legal data point to have a citable legal source, and to ensure transparency of the data the source is provided for every data point on the project website (wbl.worldbank.org). The website also provides more detailed data on each economy, with links to the legal sources used. The report team welcomes feedback on the methodology and construction of the indicators with the hope of improving both its coverage and scope. Feedback on all aspects of the report can be offered through the project website.The Women, Business and the Law methodology has several useful characteristics: %It is transparent and uses factual information derived di- rectly from laws and regulations. %Because the assumptions used when collecting the data are standardized, comparisons are valid across economies. %The data identify both potential obstacles to women in business and legislative sources that can be changed as a result of the new information. While Women, Business and the Law focuses on written laws, there is often a large gap between law on the books and ac- tual practice. Thus, women do not always have access to the equality they are legally entitled to. What this project attempts to do, however, is to identify areas where there is still formal legal differentiation and clarify how these legal differences af- fect women. The following 142 questions were asked about the seven main topics for 173 economies, producing a total of 24,566 data points. Each question is followed by information on how the answers were standardized and made comparable across all economies. Any assumptions are also listed. TABLE 4.1 ECONOMIES COVERED BY WOMEN, BUSINESS AND THE LAW 2016 Region Number of economiesEconomies by region East Asia & Pacific18 Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Fiji; Hong Kong SAR, China; Indonesia; Lao PDR; Malaysia; Mongolia; Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Taiwan, China; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tonga; Vietnam Europe & Central Asia23 Albania; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kosovo; Kyrgyz Republic; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, FYR; Moldova; Montenegro; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Tajikistan; Turkey; Ukraine; Uzbekistan OECD high income32 Australia; Austria; Belgium; Canada; Chile; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Korea, Rep.; Luxembourg; Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom; United States Latin America & Caribbean32 Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Bahamas, The; Barbados; Belize; Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Grenada; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Puerto Rico (U.S.); St. Kitts and Nevis; St. Lucia; St. Vincent and the Grenadines; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Uruguay; Venezuela, RB Middle East & North Africa19 Algeria; Bahrain; Djibouti; Egypt, Arab Rep.; Iran, Islamic Rep.; Iraq; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Malta; Morocco; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; United Arab Emirates; West Bank and Gaza; Yemen, Rep. South Asia8 Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Bhutan; India; Maldives; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka Sub-Saharan Africa41 Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Chad; Congo, Dem. Rep.; Congo, Rep.; Côte d’Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Ghana; Guinea; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; São Tomé and Príncipe; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Senegal; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe Women, Business and the Law 201644 Accessing institutions Assumptions It is assumed that the woman %Resides in the main business city of the economy being examined. %Has reached the legal age of majority and is capable of making decisions as an adult; if there is no legal age of majority, the woman is assumed to be 30 years old. %Is sane, competent, in good health and has no criminal record. %Is a lawful citizen of the economy examined. %Where the question assumes the woman or man is mar- ried, the marriage is monogamous and registered with the authorities. %Where the question assumes the woman or man is unmar- ried, she or he has never been married. %Where the answer differs according to the legal system applicable to the woman in question (as may be the case in economies where there is legal plurality), the answer used will be the one that applies to the majority of the population. Answers to the questions are based on codified law and not how that law is applied in practice. Therefore, customary law is not taken into account unless it has been codified. Questions on the status of customary law within the legal system refer to its existence and position within the hierarchy of legislation but do not assess its content. Reciprocal restrictions that govern the conduct of both spouses are not covered; this indicator measures only restrictions that govern the conduct of the wife, but not the husband. Constitutional rights This subtopic analyzes constitutional provisions that are rel- evant for gender equality. In economies that do not have a unified written constitution but do have basic laws or similar documents that have been recognized as having the same legal force as a constitution, for example a supreme court decision, or economies that have enacted a charter of fundamental rights, these documents are used as the basis for the questions. For economies without a written constitution, these questions do not apply. The seven questions for this subtopic are: 1.Does the constitution contain a clause on non dis- crimination? %For the answer to be “Yes,” the constitution must use either the word discrimination or the word nondiscrimination. %The answer is also “Yes” even when there is a “claw- back” provision granting exceptions to the nondis- crimination clause for certain areas of the law, such as inheritance, family and customary law. %The answer is “No” if %there is no nondiscrimination provision, or ECONOMY CHARACTERISTICS Gross national income per capita Women, Business and the Law 2016 reports 2014 income per capita as published in the World Bank’s World Development Indicators 2015. For cost indicators expressed as a percentage of income per capita, 2014 gross national income (GNI) Atlas method in current U.S. dollars is used as a denominator. GNI data based on the Atlas method were not available for Austria; Bahrain; Barbados; Belize; Brunei Darussalam; Czech Republic; Djibouti; Finland; the Islamic Republic of Iran; Jamaica; Kuwait; Luxembourg; Malta; New Zealand; Oman; Papua New Guinea; Puerto Rico (U.S.); Saudi Arabia; Slovak Republic; Slovenia; Spain; Suriname; Switzerland; the Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, China; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; West Bank and Gaza; and the Republic of Yemen. In these cases GDP or GNP per capita data and growth rates from other sources, such as the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook database and the Economist Intelligence Unit were used. Region and income group Women, Business and the Law uses the World Bank regional and income group classifications, available at http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-and-lending groups. Regional averages presented in figures and tables in the Women, Business and the Law report include economies from all income groups (low, lower middle, upper middle and high income), though high income OECD economies are assigned the “regional” classification OECD high income. Female population and labor force participation rate Women, Business and the Law 2016 reports midyear 2014 female population data as published in the World Bank’s World Development Indicators 2015. That publication was also used to obtain data on the female labor force participation rate, as percentage of the female population age 15–64. 45 Data Notes Data Notes %the nondiscrimination language is present in the preamble but not in an article of the constitution, or %there is a provision that merely stipulates that the sexes are equal, or the sexes have equal rights and obligations—this is considered to be an equality clause, or %there is merely a provision stipulating that people are equal before the law, but no provision is dedi- cated to nondiscrimination, or %there is merely language negating privileges based on categories, such as “There shall be no privileges based on birth, sex, class or religion,” or %the constitution refers to an international treaty that addresses discrimination but does not have its own nondiscrimination provision, or %the constitution does not ban discrimination but empowers the legislative branch to enact laws fos- tering nondiscrimination. 2. If there is a nondiscrimination clause in the constitution, does it mention gender? %The answer is “Yes” if %the constitution explicitly states that gender or sex is a protected category for nondiscrimination, or %the nondiscrimination clause does not explicitly mention gender or sex but specifies that male and female citizens are equal without discrimination. %The answer is also “Yes” if there is a clawback pro- vision granting exceptions to the nondiscrimination clause for certain areas of the law, such as inheri- tance, family and customary law. %The answer is “N/A” if there is no nondiscrimina- tion provision. %The answer is “No” if %there is no nondiscrimination provision, or %there is a nondiscrimination provision that does not specify gender or sex as protected categories, or %the nondiscrimination language that includes sex is present in the preamble but not in an article of the constitution, or %there is merely a provision stipulating that the sexes are equal or the sexes have equal rights and obligations—this is considered to be an equality clause, or %there is merely a stipulation that the sexes are equal before the law but there is no provision dedi- cated to nondiscrimination, or %there is merely language negating privileges based on sex, or %there is merely a provision entitling both sexes to fundamental rights without use of the word dis- crimination, although a phrase such as “without regard to sex” or “whatever his sex” is used. 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? %The answer is “Yes” if there is an equal protection or a general equality provision in the constitution, and the provision applies generally to “all citizens” and does not specify women as a protected category. %The answer is “No” if there is no equal protection or general equality provision in the constitution. 4a. Is customary law recognized as a valid source of law un- der the constitution? %The answer is “Yes” if %the constitution explicitly recognizes customary law or customary law courts, or %the constitution refers to methods by which customary law will be aligned with constitutional principles, or by which customary law is to be determined, or the constitution refers to require- ments that customary chiefs be consulted before enactment of legislation, or %the constitution allows laws that applied before the constitution comes into force to continue to have the force of law, if the country had a robust system of customary law in place at the time. %The answer is “No” if %there is no explicit constitutional recognition of customary sources or systems of law, or %the constitution recognizes customary law to be applied only in certain limited territorial areas. %This question does not include customary contractual terms or other forms of implied usage. 4b. If customary law is recognized as a valid source of law un- der the constitution, is it invalid if it violates constitutional provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? %The answer is “Yes” if %the constitution provides that customary law is considered invalid if it violates other provisions of constitutional law, or Women, Business and the Law 201646 %the constitution makes reference to methods by which customary law will be aligned with consti- tutional principles on nondiscrimination or equality, or %the constitution establishes that customary laws or rights are guaranteed equally to men and women. %The answer is “No” if customary law takes precedence over constitutional nondiscrimination or equality pro- visions or the constitution is silent with regard to a hierarchy of laws or provisions. %The answer is “N/A” if there are no constitutional provisions on nondiscrimination or equality, or the constitution does not explicitly state that customary law is considered a valid source of law. 5a. Is personal law recognized as a valid source of law under the constitution? %The answer is “Yes” if %the constitution explicitly recognizes personal or religious law, or %the constitution makes reference to methods by which personal law will be aligned with constitu- tional principles or by which personal law is to be determined, or provides for a religious council or other body to advise on the passage of per- sonal laws, or recognizes religious systems of law or religious sources of law, or %the constitution allows laws that applied before the constitution came into force to remain valid, if the country had a robust system of personal law in place at the time. %The answer is “No” if there is no explicit constitutional recognition of religious sources or systems of law. 5b. If personal law is recognized as a valid source of law un- der the constitution, is it invalid if it violates constitutional provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? %The answer is “Yes” if the constitution provides that personal or religious law is considered invalid if it vio- lates other provisions of constitutional law. %The answer is “No” if %personal or religious law takes precedence over constitutional provisions on nondiscrimination or equality, or %religious law is declared to be the basis of all legislation, and the constitution either contains a supremacy clause or is silent with regard to a hier- archy of laws or provisions. %The answer is “N/A” if there are no constitutional pro- visions on nondiscrimination or equality, or if personal or religious laws are not considered valid sources of law under the constitution. Quotas This subtopic focuses on the existence of quotas for corporate boards, parliaments and local governments. The five questions capture mandatory quotas concerning the number of seats reserved for women or the proportion of women on candidate lists that parties submit for elections. In hybrid quota systems where both candidate list and reserved seat mechanisms are used to determine the women’s quota, the more dominant sys- tem that ultimately establishes the quota is counted. In cases of cumulative quota systems where the final quota is determined by adding together a reserved seat and a candidate list system, both are counted. 6.What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? %Proportions are entered in percentage terms, e.g., 40%. %If the quota is an absolute number and does not de- pend on the size of the corporate board, the answer is > 0. %“No quota” means there is no quota in place. %Percentages are entered if there are quotas for pri- vate sector companies, even if they apply only to certain companies, such as those of a certain size or those listed on a stock market. %The answer is “N/A” if quotas exist only for public sec- tor or government-owned companies. %The question does not cover voluntary or recom- mended quotas. 7. What are the quotas for women representatives in parliament? %Quotas reflect reserved seats and proportions are entered in percentage terms, e.g., 40%. %“No quota” means there is no quota in place. %The question does not cover voluntary or recom- mended quotas. %If the parliament has two chambers and the law spec- ifies a quota for one but not the other, the answer reflects the quota only for the chamber that has a quota. %If both parliamentary chambers have quotas, only the quota for the lower chamber, e.g., the national or people’s assembly, is counted. 47 Data Notes Data Notes 8. What are the quotas for women representatives in local government? %This question aims to capture seat quotas for the municipal level. %Where the main business city is both a municipal and a federal entity, it is treated as a municipality. %Where municipal gender quotas vary, the quota for the municipality that includes the main business city will be reflected. %Proportions are entered in percentage terms, e.g., 40%. %“No quota” means there is no quota in place. %The question does not cover voluntary or recom- mended quotas. 9. What are the quotas for women representatives on can- didate lists in national elections? 1 %If there is a quota for candidate lists, the percentage will be indicated. %If the quota refers not to a percentage but to where women must be placed on the list (e.g., every third candidate must be a woman), this information is con- verted to a percentage format (in this example, 33%). %If the quota is an absolute number, the answer is > 0. %If the quota varies depending on the length of the candidate list or the number of seats contested, the highest quota is recorded. %“No quota” means there is no quota for candidate lists. %The question does not apply to quotas for internal party elections. %If the parliament has two chambers, and the law specifies a quota for one but not the other, the an- swer reflects the quota only for the chamber that has the quota. If both parliamentary chambers have quotas, only the quota for the lower chamber, e.g., the national or people’s assembly, is counted. 10. What are the quotas for women representatives on can- didate lists in local elections? 2 %This question aims to capture quotas for the munici- pal level. %Where the main business city is both a municipal and a federal entity, it is treated as a municipality. %If there is a quota for candidate lists, the percentage will be indicated. %If the quota refers not to a percentage but to where women must be placed on the list (e.g., every third candidate must be a woman), this information is con- verted to a percentage format (in this example, 33%). %If the quota varies depending on the length of the candidate list or the number of seats contested, the highest quota is recorded. %If the quota is an absolute number, the answer is > 0. %“No quota” means there is no quota for candidate lists. %This question does not apply to quotas for internal party elections. Rights of married and unmarried women This subtopic addresses whether a woman can engage in certain legal transactions in the same way as a man. It also addresses whether the marital status of the woman makes a difference. Married and unmarried men and women may not be able do things in the same way when, for instance, women must have permission or an additional signature in order to complete certain transactions, or when they must provide documenta- tion not required of men, such as a marriage license or a proof of name change. Differences related to property transactions are taken into account only for the using property indicator. Accessing institutions does not count this type of difference. This subtopic has 22 questions covering 11 transactions that are either legal or relate to women’s freedom of movement. In the data tables, the 22 questions for accessing institutions are condensed into 11 questions with two possible answers each, one for married and one for unmarried women: 11a. Can an unmarried woman apply for a passport in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if, upon reaching the legal age of majority, all civil acts can be completed and there are no differences in the way an unmarried woman or man obtains a passport. %The answer is “No” if %an adult unmarried woman needs the permission or signature of a guardian to apply for a passport, or %the passport application of an adult unmarried woman requires a reference to her father’s name or any other male relative or guardian. Women, Business and the Law 201648 11b. Can a married woman apply for a passport in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if upon reaching the legal age of majority, all civil acts can be completed and there are no differences in the way a married woman or man obtains a passport. %The answer is “No” if %an adult married woman needs the permission or signature of her husband in order to apply for a passport, or %documentation is required from a married woman that is not required from a married man, e.g., a marriage certificate, or a married woman’s applica- tion requires reference to her husband’s name. 12a. Can an unmarried woman obtain a national ID card in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no inequalities in the process for obtaining a national identity card. %The answer is “No” if %an unmarried woman requires additional signa- tures, such as those of her father or guardian, which are not required from an unmarried man, or %an unmarried woman must indicate the name of her father or guardian, but an unmarried man is not required to do so, or %identity cards are optional for a woman, but re- quired for a man. %The answer is “N/A” if there is no national identity card. 12b. Can a married woman obtain a national ID card in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no inequalities in the process for obtaining a national identity card. If mar- ried men must provide a marriage certificate or birth certificate as proof of name, whereas married women must provide a marriage certificate, the answer is still “Yes.” %The answer is “No” if %a married woman must provide a marriage certifi- cate, but a married man need not, or %a married woman, but not a married man, must provide additional signatures, such as those of the husband, father or guardian, or %a married woman must indicate the name of her spouse, but a married man is not so required, or %identity cards are optional for women, but required for men, or %the identity card of a married woman displays the name of her spouse, but the identity card of a mar- ried man does not. %The answer is “N/A” if there is no national identity card. 13a. Can an unmarried woman travel outside the country in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on an unmarried woman travelling alone internationally. %The answer is “No” if an unmarried woman has to have permission or additional documentation to leave the country; however, this permission must be differ- ent from what is required to get a passport, which is covered in a separate question. 13b. Can a married woman travel outside the country in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on a married woman travelling alone internationally. %The answer is “No” if %permission or additional documentation is required for a married woman to leave the country; how- ever, this permission must be different from that required to get a passport, which is covered in a separate question, or %the law requires a married woman to accompany her husband out of the country if he so wishes. 14a. Can an unmarried woman travel outside her home in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on an unmarried woman travelling alone domestically. %The answer is “No” if %permission, additional documentation or the pres- ence of a guardian is required for her to travel domestically, or %an unmarried woman must justify her reasons to her father or guardian for leaving the home. 14b. Can a married woman travel outside her home in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on a married woman travelling alone domestically. 49 Data Notes Data Notes %The answer is “No” if %permission, additional documentation or the pres- ence of her husband or a guardian is required for a married woman to travel domestically, or %a married woman must justify her reasons to her husband for leaving the home, or %leaving the home without a valid reason is con- sidered disobedience with consequences under the law, for example, loss of her right to financial maintenance. 15a. Can an unmarried woman get a job or pursue a trade or profession in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if %no permission is needed for an unmarried woman to get a job or practice a trade or profession, or %there is no restriction in family or civil law on an unmarried woman’s ability to work. %The answer is “No” if permission or additional docu- mentation is required, or if a guardian can prevent an unmarried woman from working. 15b. Can a married woman get a job or pursue a trade or pro- fession in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if %no permission is needed for a married woman to get a job or practice a trade or profession, or %there is no restriction in family or civil law on a married woman’s ability to work. %The answer is “No” if %the husband can prevent his wife from getting or keeping a job or pursuing a trade or profession, or %permission or additional documentation is required for a married woman to get a job, or %a married man can go to court to get his wife’s employer to fire her from her job or force her to leave her profession, or %it is considered a form of disobedience with legal ramifications for a wife to engage in employment contrary to her husband’s wishes or the interests of the family. 16a. Can an unmarried woman sign a contract in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if full legal capacity is obtained upon the age of majority and there are no restric- tions on an unmarried woman signing legally binding contracts. %The answer is “No” if an unmarried woman has limited legal capacity to sign a binding contract. 16b. Can a married woman sign a contract in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if full legal capacity is obtained upon the age of majority and there are no restrictions on a married woman signing legally binding contracts. %The answer is “No” if a married woman has limited legal capacity to enter into contracts or needs the signature, consent or permission of her husband to legally bind herself. %This question does not concern restrictions on mar- ried women signing contracts specifically related to marital property governed by the default marital property regime; these are covered under the using property indicator. 17a. Can an unmarried woman register a business in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if a woman obtains full legal ca- pacity upon reaching the age of majority and there are no restrictions on an unmarried woman register- ing a business. %The answer is “No” if %an unmarried woman has limited legal capacity to register a business; this would include situations in which a woman may not bind herself to a legal document, or %the registration process requires additional infor- mation or documentation for unmarried women not required of unmarried men. %The answer is also “No” for member states of regional bodies, such as the Organisation pour l’Harmonisation en Afrique du Droit des Affaires (OHADA) for which supranational law applies (e.g., OHADA Acte Uniforme Révisé sur le Droit Commercial Général) when domes- tic law contravenes these supranational rules and limits the legal capacity of women. 17b. Can a married woman register a business in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if full legal capacity is obtained upon the age of majority and there are no restrictions on a married woman registering a business. %The answer is “No” if a married woman %has limited legal capacity to register a business, as when she may not legally bind herself to a con- tract, or Women, Business and the Law 201650 %needs her husband’s permission, signature or con- sent to register a business, or %must provide information or documentation at any stage of the registration process, and the require- ment does not apply to a married man. %The answer is also “No” for member states of regional bodies, such as the Organisation pour l’Harmonisation en Afrique du Droit des Affaires (OHADA) for which supranational law applies (e.g., OHADA Acte Uniforme Révisé sur le Droit Commercial Général) when domes- tic law contravenes these supranational rules and limits the legal capacity of women. 18a. Can an unmarried woman open a bank account in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on an unmarried woman opening a bank account. Only pro- visions from the body of family law are systematically reviewed; any that exist in other types of law, such as banking regulations, are not included here. %The answer is “No” if specific provisions limit the ability of an unmarried woman to open a bank ac- count, such as required permissions or additional documentation. 18b. Can a married woman open a bank account in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if %there are no restrictions on a married woman opening a bank account—only provisions from the body of family law are systematically reviewed, or %the law explicitly states that a married woman may open a bank account, or that both spouses may open bank accounts in their own names. %The answer is “No” if %specific legal provisions limit the ability of a mar- ried woman to open a bank account, such as those stating that a married woman who is separately employed from her husband may open a bank ac- count in her own name, because that implies that a woman without a separate income stream may not do so, or %specific provisions limit the capacity of a married woman and prevent her from opening a bank ac- count in her own name, such as required permis- sions or additional documentation. 19a. Can an unmarried woman choose where to live in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on an unmarried woman choosing where to live. %The answer is “No” if there are explicit restrictions on an unmarried woman choosing her place of residence. 19b. Can a married woman choose where to live in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no explicit restrictions on a married woman choosing where her family may live. %The answer is “No” if the husband chooses the fam- ily residence or marital home or has more weight in determining where the family will live. 20a. Can an unmarried woman confer citizenship on her chil- dren in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if %both the mother and the father can convey citizen- ship to the child in the same manner, regardless of where the child is born, or %there are additional procedures that must be com- pleted by men but not by women (e.g., proof of paternity). %The answer is “No” if %only the father can convey citizenship to the child, wherever that child may have been born, or %additional procedures are required when citizen- ship is conveyed by the mother. %Where a citizenship law and the constitution conflict on the passage of citizenship, the answer is coded according to whichever came later in time. 20b. Can a married woman confer citizenship on her children in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if %both the married mother and father may convey citizenship to their children in the same manner, wherever the children are born, or %there are additional procedures that must be com- pleted by men but not by women (e.g., proof of paternity). %The answer is “No” if only the married father can con- vey citizenship to the child, wherever that child may have been born, or if additional requirements exist when citizenship is conveyed by the mother. 51 Data Notes Data Notes %Where a citizenship law and the constitution conflict on the passage of citizenship, the answer is coded according to whichever came later in time. 21a. Can an unmarried woman be “head of household” or “head of family” in the same way as an unmarried man? %The answer is “Yes” if the definition of head of hous e- hold is codified, and there are no explicit restrictions on an unmarried woman becoming “head of house- hold” or “head of family.” %The answer is “No” if there is an explicit restriction on an unmarried woman becoming “head of household” or “head of family;” e.g., a provision stating that only men can be designated “head of household” or “head of family” or that men “lead the family.” %The answer is “N/A” if the definition of head of house- hold is not codified. 21b. Can a married woman be “head of household” or “head of family” in the same way as a married man? %The answer is “Yes” if the definition of head of house- hold is codified, and there are no explicit restrictions on a married woman becoming “head of household” or “head of family.” %The answer is “No” if %there is an explicit restriction on a married woman becoming “head of household” or “head of family,” e.g., a provision stating that only husbands can be so designated or that husbands “lead the family” or “represent the family,” or %a male is designated as the default family member who receives the family book or equivalent docu- ment that is necessary for access to services. %The answer is “N/A” if the definition of head of house- hold is not codified. Division of responsibility within marriage The three questions in this subtopic address potential legal in- equalities that apply to married women: 22. Can a woman convey citizenship to a non-national spouse in the same way as a man? %This question compares the ability of an adult married woman to legally convey her citizenship to her non- national husband with the ability of an adult married man to do the same for his non-national wife. %The answer is “Yes” if %marriage to a national male or female equally con- fers some preference in naturalization to the non- national spouse, or %neither spouse may convey citizenship to the other; citizenship must be obtained through the general naturalization procedures with no prefer- ence of any sort given to the spouse of a national. %The answer is “No” if %a national husband can convey citizenship to his non-national wife, but a national wife may not do so for her non-national husband, or %the ability to convey citizenship to a spouse is pro- cedurally differentiated by gender, e.g., a woman married to a national receives automatic citizen- ship rights upon her marriage, but a man married to a national must wait a specific number of years to become a citizen. 23. Are married women required by law to obey their husbands? %The answer is “Yes” if %there is an explicit provision stating that a married woman must obey her husband, or %a provision states that disobedience toward her husband has legal ramifications for the wife, such as loss of maintenance. %The answer is “No” if there is no provision that a mar- ried woman must obey her husband. 24. Do married couples jointly share legal responsibility for financially maintaining the family’s expenses? %The answer is “Yes” if %there is an explicit provision stating that spouses have joint or shared legal responsibility for finan- cially maintaining their family, even if husbands are primarily responsible, or %spouses have equal rights and responsibilities within marriage, or %the law is silent on the matter. %The answer is “No” if there are provisions stating that husbands are solely responsible for the financial sup- port of the family. Using property Assumptions It is assumed that the woman %Resides in the economy’s main business city. %Has reached the legal age of majority and is capable of making decisions as an adult; if there is no legal age of majority, the woman is assumed to be 30 years old. Women, Business and the Law 201652 %Is sane, competent, in good health and has no criminal record. %Is a lawful citizen of the economy being examined. %Where the question assumes that the woman or man is unmarried, she or he has never been married. %Where the question assumes that the woman or man is married, the marriage is monogamous and registered with the authorities. %Where the question assumes that the woman or man is married, the marital property regime under which she or he is married is assumed to be the default marital property regime, and it is also assumed that the marital property regime will not change during the course of the marriage. %Where the answer differs according to the legal system that applies to the woman—as may occur in economies where legal plurality exists—the answer used will be the one that applies to the majority of the population. The answers to these questions are based on the law as codi- fied in the main business city and not the practice of that law. Therefore, customary law is not taken into account unless it has been codified. Social or cultural norms are also not taken into account. The questions for the using property indicator are designed to determine what management and control of marital property looks like in the default marital property regime in each econo- my covered. For all questions relating to the ability of married women to carry out activities independently of their husbands, the key concern is reciprocity. Unequal treatment is counted only where a married man can carry out the activity, and his wife is not able to do so equally. Marital property regime The main areas of differentiation between women and men in exercising property rights lie in the rights granted under various marital property regimes: Some of these grant spouses equal treatment in property ownership. Other regimes grant hus- bands administrative control over jointly owned marital proper- ty. Still others grant husbands administrative control over their wives’ property. The marital property regime also determines property ownership and administrative rights when a marriage is dissolved. Women, Business and the Law identifies the main charac- teristics of the default marital property regime by asking two questions: 25. What is the default marital property regime? %The default marital property regime is the set of rules that apply to the ownership and management of property within marriage and when the marriage ends, when there is no prenuptial agreement. Default marital property regimes are classified as follows: %Separation of property: All assets and income ac- quired by the spouses both before they marry and during the marriage remain the separate property of the acquiring spouse. At the time of divorce or the death of one of the spouses, each spouse retains ownership of all assets and income brought to the marriage or acquired during marriage by that person and any value that has accrued to that property. %Partial community of property: Assets acquired be- fore marriage are regarded as the separate property of the acquiring spouse, and assets and income ac- quired after marriage, with a few exceptions specified by law, are regarded as joint property of the couple. This regime also applies to cases where assets ac- quired before marriage and assets acquired during marriage are regarded as the separate property of the acquiring spouse but the accrued value of the proper- ty acquired by any of the spouses is considered joint property. At the time of dissolution of the marriage by divorce or death, the joint property or its accrued value is divided equally between the spouses. %Full community of property: All assets and income whether brought into the marriage and acquired during the marriage, with a few exceptions specified by law, become the joint property of the couple. If the marriage is dissolved, all joint property is divided equally between the spouses. %Deferred full or partial community of property: The rules of full or partial community of property apply at the time the marriage is dissolved; until then, separa- tion of property applies. %Other: This occurs in economies where the default property regime does not fit any of the four descrip- tions above. %There is no default marital property regime: This al- ternative applies in economies where the law requires the spouses to opt into the marital property regime of their choice—with legal alternatives provided—be- fore or at the time of marriage. In economies where there is no default marital property regime, the most common regime is used instead. 26. Who legally administers marital property? The answer to this question assumes that the default marital property regime applies and is classified as follows: %Original owner: Each spouse retains administrative power over the assets he or she brings into or ac- quires during the marriage and their accrued value. No consent is needed from the other spouse for 53 Data Notes Data Notes transactions in separate property. This administrative scheme is usually found in separation of property re- gimes and can also be found in deferred full or partial community regimes. It does not cover special provi- sions concerning the marital home. %Separate with spousal consent: Each spouse ad- ministers his or her separate property but for major transactions needs spousal consent. This administra- tive scheme is mostly found in separation of prop- erty regimes but can also be found in deferred full or partial community and in partial community regimes. %Both must agree: Both spouses have equal rights in administration and transaction of joint property; they perform all acts of administration together and, if one of the spouses has been delegated administra- tive rights by the other, spousal consent is implied. This administrative scheme is mostly seen in full and partial community property regimes. %Husband: The husband has administrative rights over all property, including any separate property of the wife. This scheme is found only in partial community regimes. %Other: This alternative applies wherever the adminis- trative scheme does not fit into any of the previous categories. It includes, for example, cases in which in principle the law provides for both spouses to admin- ister marital property but if they disagree, either the husband is given the power to ultimately decide, or other members of the family have a say in how the property is administered. Where there is disagree- ment on how to administer marital property, a court may decide. Protecting a wife’s interests This subtopic focuses on two areas: (1) legal provisions that limit transactions concerning major assets; and (2) legal recog- nition of married women’s nonremunerated contributions. The related questions are: 27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? %This question is designed to measure whether the law sets limits to the administrative rights granted to the husband over property to prevent deterioration that may be detrimental to the wife. %The answer is “Yes” where the law requires the wife to give consent to any major transaction in property the husband administers, such as selling or pledging the property as collateral. %The answer is “No” where there is no legal requirement for the wife to consent to transactions performed by the husband in the property he administers. %The answer is “N/A” where the husband does not solely administer marital property. 28. Are there special provisions for major transactions con- cerning the marital home? %This question is designed to measure specific legal protections concerning the marital home, regardless of the default marital property regime. %The answer is “Yes” where the law has provisions re- lated to administration of the marital home, such as a requirement that both spouses agree to any major transaction involving the home, including selling or pledging it as collateral, or that the court will inter- vene when the spouses disagree. Such provisions are particularly relevant where separation or deferred full or partial community are the default regimes. %The answer is “No” if the general rules on transactions related to property within marriage are followed. 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? %This question is designed to measure if, at the time a marriage is dissolved, the division of property ben- efits both spouses. The process of dividing property upon divorce is examined to identify whether caring for minor children, taking care of the family home, or any other nonmonetized contribution from the stay-at-home spouse, usually the wife, is taken into consideration. %The answer is “Yes” %where an explicit legal recognition of such con- tributions is found and the law provides for equal or equitable division of the property based on the nonmonetary contributions, or %when the default marital property regime is full community, partial community or deferred full or partial community, because these regimes implic- itly recognize nonmonetary contributions at the time of property division and benefit both spouses regardless of which of them actually purchased it or holds title to it. %The answer is “No” where %the default marital property regime is separation of property or other, and there is no explicit legal provision providing for equal or equitable division of property based on nonmonetary contributions. Women, Business and the Law 201654 Property rights This subtopic deals with the following two legal transactions: 30a. Do unmarried men and unmarried women have equal ownership rights to property? %Ownership rights as used here covers the ability to manage, control, administer, access, encumber, re- ceive, dispose of and transfer property. %The answer is “Yes” when there is no specific legal re- striction related to property applied to single women or men based on gender. %The answer is “No” when legal restrictions on prop- erty ownership are applied to single women or men, based on gender. 30b. Do married men and married women have equal owner- ship rights to property? %Ownership rights as used here covers the ability to manage, control, administer, access, encumber, re- ceive, dispose of and transfer property. The answer to this question is based on whether husbands and wives married under the default property regime have equal ownership rights over property. %The answer is “Yes” when there is no specific restric- tion or difference in legal treatment applied to mar- ried women or men based on gender. %The answer is “No” when there are gender differences in the legal treatment of spousal property, for ex- ample, if husbands are granted administrative control over marital property. Inheritance rights This subtopic focuses on the law that applies where there is no will. In economies where codified law applies only to individuals who have affirmatively renounced customary law, the presump- tion is that an affirmative renunciation has been made. 31. Do sons and daughters have equal rights to inherit assets from their parents? %This question examines whether there are gender- based differences in the rules of intestate succession (there is no will) for transfer of property from parents to children. %The answer is “Yes” when the law recognizes children as heirs to property without any restrictions based on gender. %The answer is “No” when there are gender-based differences in the recognition of children as heirs to property. 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal rights to inherit assets? %For purposes of this question, it is assumed that the deceased spouse left no children or any heirs other than the surviving spouse. %This question examines whether both spouses have equal rank and rights to inherit assets when there is no will. %The answer is “Yes” when surviving spouses of either gender have the same legal rights. %The answer is “No” where there are gender-based dif- ferences in inheritance. Going to court Assumptions It is assumed that the woman %Resides in the economy’s main business city. %Has reached the legal age of majority and is capable of making decisions as an adult. %Is sane, competent, in good health and has no criminal record. %Where the answer differs according to the legal system that applies to the woman—as may be the case in econo- mies where legal plurality exists—the answer used will be the one that applies to the majority of the population. The answers are based on codified law and not whether it is applied in practice. Therefore, customary law is not taken into account unless it has been codified. This topic assesses both indirect and direct differentiation in the law with relation to women’s access to the judicial system. For the first subtopic on equality of access, three questions exam- ine the existence of courts to adjudicate matters of customary or personal law and assess the value of a woman’s testimony in court relative to a man’s. Equality of access 33. Does the law recognize customary courts? %The answer is “Yes” if the constitution or another law establishes or recognizes the authority of a judicial body (e.g., a court or tribunal) that is competent to exclusively hear cases and apply customary law, codi- fied or not. %The answer is “No” if the constitution or another law establishes or recognizes the authority of a judicial body that applies customary law, codified or not, in addition to laws other than customary law. 55 Data Notes Data Notes 34. Does the law recognize personal law courts? %The answer is “Yes” if the constitution or another law establishes or recognizes the authority of a judicial body (e.g., court or tribunal) that is competent to ex- clusively hear cases and apply personal law, codified or not. %The answer is “No” if the constitution or another law establishes or recognizes the authority of a judicial body that is competent to hear cases and apply per- sonal law, codified or not, in addition to laws other than personal law. 35. Does a woman’s testimony carry the same evidentiary weight in court as a man’s? %This question covers all types of court cases. %The answer is “No” if the law explicitly differentiates between the evidentiary value of a woman’s testi- mony and that of a man. %The answer is “Yes” if the law does not differentiate between the evidentiary value of a woman’s testi- mony and that of a man. Judicial representation For this subtopic, three questions look at women’s representa- tion on constitutional courts and other court-like institutions that are mandated to review legislative and executive acts and interpret the constitution. 36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? %For the purposes of this question, constitutional courts and court-like institutions mandated with the determination of constitutionality of laws and regula- tions are examined. %When a specific number of justices is set by law, the data reflect that number of justices. %When the number of justices set by law is a minimum, a maximum or a range, the data reflect the actual number of justices. %When a separate chamber of the highest court carries out constitutional review, the question reflects the composition of that chamber. 37. Of those, how many are women? %This question reflects how many members of con- stitutional courts or court-like institutions mandated with the determination of constitutionality of laws and regulations are women. 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? %This question reflects if the Chief Justice of the con- stitutional court or the court-like body mandated with the determination of constitutionality of laws and regulations is a woman. Efficiency of procedure For this subtopic, questions examine the existence of small claims courts and the threshold for claims that they can adjudicate. 39. Is there a small claims court or a fast-track procedure for small claims? %Small claims courts hear only civil cases between private litigants involving relatively small amounts of money; though the names of such courts vary by jurisdiction, common features generally include relaxed rules of civil procedure, the appearance of adversaries without legal representation, the use of plain language and relaxed evidentiary rules. Fast- track and simplified procedural rules for small claims operate similarly but the cases are tried in courts of more general jurisdiction. %The answer is “Yes” if %there is either a small claims court or a fast-track procedure for civil claims of small value, and there is a maximum value of cases that may be heard in a small claims court or fast-track procedure, or %the small claims court or fast-track procedure has jurisdiction to hear at least general civil cases. %The answer is “No” if %there is a small claims court or fast-track procedure but it is competent only to hear commercial claims, not all civil claims, or %only a few types of civil disputes are within the jurisdiction of the small-claims court (e.g., rent disputes only). 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount for a small claim? %This indicates the highest amount for claims that can be heard in a small claims court; when different amounts apply to civil and commercial cases, the amount that applies to civil cases is used. %The answer is “N/A” if the economy in question has no small claims courts or fast-track procedures for civil claims of small value. %The answer is presented as a percentage of income per capita. Women, Business and the Law 201656 Providing incentives to work Taxes and the provision of certain public services can make it either easier or more difficult for women to participate in the labor force. Questions on this topic are: Personal income tax 41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? %The answer is “Yes” if childcare expenses are listed as deductible items in the personal income tax code; for this purpose, childcare expenses cover, e.g., fees for kindergartens or crèches, daycare centers, after-school centers, in-home care and child-minding arrangements. %The answer is “No” if the childcare allowance granted by the government is not taxable. 42a. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men? %This question is designed to determine whether the tax code differentiates between men and women on deductions and credits and covers instances where tax-specific deductions and credits can only be claimed by male heads of household. %The answer is “Yes” if %the personal income tax code specifies that a tax deduction or credit applies only to male taxpayers, or %the code provides for a tax deduction or credit that can only go to the head of household, and only men can legally be the head of household. 42b. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to women? %The answer is “Yes” if the personal income tax code provides for a tax credit or deduction that can only be claimed by female taxpayers. Childcare and education 43. Does the government support or provide childcare services? %For purposes of this question, childcare for children too young for primary education may take such forms as kindergartens or crèches, preschools, daycare centers, after-school centers, in-home care and child- minding arrangements. %The answer is “Yes” if %public authorities fund childcare facilities and ser- vices (public or private), or %public authorities subsidize the use of private child- care facilities and services, as well as the hiring of child-minders.44. Does the government provide free and compulsory pri- mary education? %The answer is “Yes” if elementary education is man- dated by the Constitution or another law and is pub- licly funded. Financial support and care 45.Does the government provide a child allowance to parents?3 %This question covers financial support granted by the government to parents for children not yet old enough for primary school. Support may take such forms as vouchers or preschool fee waivers and transfers. Payments are granted while mothers work. The payments are not tax benefits and do not require attendance at preschool. %The answer is “Yes” %if allowance is granted up to a certain age and is not associated with maternity, paternity, or paren- tal leave, or %even if the allowance is granted to only one of the parents. %The answer is “No” if the allowance is granted to a specific class of people (e.g., parents of children with disabilities). 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? 4 %Family care leave is granted to the employee spe- cifically for the purpose of caring for a sick relative and does not include maternity, paternity or parental leave. %The answer is “Yes” if %the leave is to take care of a sick parent, child or other relative, or %the law specifies that the employer has an obliga- tion to grant an employee leave to take care of a sick relative, or %the leave is granted in exceptional circumstances related to family matters. %The answer is “No” if the law %gives the employer the option to grant such leave, or %provides that such leave is subject to collective bargaining agreements or any other agreement, including the employer’s consent, or %allows an employee to work part-time or have a flexible work schedule to care for a sick relative. 57 Data Notes Data Notes Building credit Registries and bureaus The background information for these questions comes from the depth-of-credit-information index that is part of the Doing Business 2016 getting credit indicator. That index covers rules affecting the scope, accessibility and quality of credit informa- tion available through private credit bureaus and public credit registries. Credit bureaus and registries are only considered if their coverage extends to at least 5% of the adult population within an economy. Four questions related to areas that could affect women’s ability to build credit were examined: 47. What is the minimum loan amount covered in the private credit bureau or public credit registry? %This number reflects the lowest minimum loan amount of any credit bureau or registry in the econ- omy in question. %If a credit bureau or registry collects data on loans worth less than 1% of income per capita, it is treated as if it collects data on loans of any value; thus an answer of zero here means either that there is no minimum loan amount in at least one credit bureau or registry, or that at least one credit bureau or registry collects data on loans worth less than 1% of income per capita; %The answer is “N/A” if there is no credit bureau or registry in the economy. %The answer is presented as a percentage of income per capita. 48a. Do retailers provide information to private credit bureaus or public credit registries? %For purposes of this question, it is sufficient that any private credit bureau or public credit registry in the economy in question collects information from any retailer. %The answer is “N/A” if there is no private credit bu- reau or public credit registry. 48b. Do utility companies provide information to private credit bureaus or public credit registries? %For purposes of this question, it is sufficient that any private credit bureau or public credit registry in the economy in question collects information from a util- ity company. %The answer is “N/A” if there is no private credit bu- reau or public credit registry.48c. Do microfinance institutions provide information to pri- vate credit bureaus or public credit registries? %High-income economies are not included in this sam- ple because microfinance institutions are far more prevalent in developing economies. Also, because traditional bank financing is generally widely available to women in high-income economies, microfinance is less critical to women’s quest for capital. %For purposes of this question, it is sufficient that any private credit bureau or public credit registry in the economy in question collects information from micro- finance institutions. %The answer is “N/A” if %the economy in question is high-income, or %there is no private credit bureau or public credit registry. Discrimination 49a.Does the law prohibit discrimination by creditors on the basis of gender in access to credit?5 %The answer is “Yes” if %the law prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender or sex, or provides for equal access for both sexes when conducting financial transactions, such as applying for credit or loans, or %the law prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender or sex when conducting entrepreneurial activities or receiving financial assistance, or %the law prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender or sex when accessing goods and services, and the definition of services in law, regulation or government-published explanations/promotional material covers financial services, or %banking and financial services are not listed as ser- vices exempt from nondiscrimination laws. %The answer is “No” if the law does not prohibit such discrimination. 49b. Does the law prohibit discrimination by creditors on the basis of marital status in access to credit? 6 %The answer is “Yes” if %the law specifically prohibits discrimination on the basis of marital status or provides for equal access irrespective of marital status when conducting fi- nancial transactions, such as applying for credit or loans, or Women, Business and the Law 201658 %the law prohibits discrimination on the basis of marital status when conducting entrepreneurial activities or receiving financial assistance, or %the law prohibits discrimination on the basis of marital status when accessing goods and services, and the definition of services in law, regulation or government-published explanations/promotional material covers financial services, or %banking and financial services are not listed as ser- vices exempt from nondiscrimination law. %The answer is “No” if the law does not prohibit such discrimination. Getting a job Assumptions It is assumed that the woman %Resides in the economy’s main business city. %Has reached the legal age of majority and is capable of making decisions as an adult. %Is a lawful citizen of the economy being examined. %For purposes of determining the retirement and pension- able age, that she is currently 40 years old and started working at age 25. %For purposes of determining maternity or parental leave, that she gave birth to her first child without complications on or after January 1, 2014, at age 30, and her child is in good health. %Is sane, competent, in good health and has no criminal record. %Has been working long enough to accrue all benefits, in- cluding any maternity, parental or retirement benefits. %Will be nursing until the child is one year old. %For purposes of determining the retirement and pension- able age, that she has raised only one child. %Is working as a cashier in the food retail sector in a super- market or grocery store of at least 60 employees. It is assumed that the man %Resides in the country’s main business city. %Has reached the legal age of majority and is capable of making decisions as an adult. %Is a lawful citizen of the economy being examined. %For purposes of determining the retirement and pension- able age, that he is currently 40 years old and started working at age 25. %For purposes of determining paternity leave or parental leave, has a first child who was born on or after January 1, 2014, without complications, was 30 years old when his child was born, and the child is in good health. %Is sane, competent, in good health and has no criminal record. %Has been working long enough to accrue all benefits, in- cluding any paternity, parental or retirement benefits. %Is working as a cashier in the food retail sector in a super- market or grocery store of at least 60 employees. %Has completed infant care training courses, which some- times serve as a prerequisite for extended paternity leave. In general, the answers to the questions in the getting a job indicator are based on written law and not collective bargaining agreements; however, the latter are taken into account when two conditions are met: %They cover more than 50% of the work force in the food retail sector. %They apply to individuals who were not party to the origi- nal collective bargaining agreement. Parental benefits The subtopic on parental benefits contains 19 questions on maternity, paternity and parental benefits. Maternity covers benefits that apply only to the mother, and paternity covers benefits that apply only to the father. Parental covers benefits that apply to both, even if the distribution of benefits between the two parents is unequal. 50a. Does the law mandate paid or unpaid maternity leave? %Maternity leave may be paid or unpaid, as long as the government explicitly mandates the right to some form of maternity leave. %Maternity leave is defined as leave available only to the mother; it does not cover parental leave that is available to both parents. %Provisions for circumstantial leave by which an em- ployee is entitled to a certain number of days of paid leave (usually fewer than five days) upon the birth of a child are considered paternity leave; even if the law is gender-neutral, such leave is not considered mater- nity leave if the law covers maternity leave elsewhere. 50b. Does the law mandate paid or unpaid paternity leave? %Paternity leave may be paid or unpaid as long as the government explicitly mandates the right to some form of paternity leave. 59 Data Notes Data Notes %Paternity leave is defined as leave available only to the father; it does not include leave available to both parents. %Provisions for circumstantial leave in which an employee is entitled to a certain number of days of paid or unpaid leave (usually fewer than five days) upon the birth of a child are considered paternity leave; even if the law is gender-neutral, such leave is not considered maternity leave as long as maternity leave is covered elsewhere by the law. For example, if the labor code provides that a worker may take a “one-day leave for the birth of a child” as an unpaid justified absence, the term “worker” is gender-neutral, and maternity leave is covered in another article of the code, the one-day unpaid justified absence is considered paternity leave. 50c. Does the law mandate paid or unpaid parental leave? %Parental leave may be paid or unpaid as long as the government explicitly mandates the right to some form of parental leave shared between mother and father; parental leave may also be an individual entitlement. %Allowances for a fixed number of days per year ap- plied to family emergencies or child-related respon- sibilities are not considered parental leave; the leave must be contiguous with the birth of the child and with maternity or paternity leave. 51a. What is the length of paid maternity leave? %This is the mandatory minimum number of calendar days of maternity leave that legally must be paid by the government, the employer or both. %Maternity leave is defined as leave av ailable only to the mother; it does not cover parental leave that is available to both parents. %If paid leave not contiguous with the birth of a child is provided, it is not considered paid maternity leave because it can be taken at any point after the child is born. 51b. What is the length of paid paternity leave? %This is the mandatory minimum number of calendar days of paternity leave that legally must be paid by the government, the employer or both. %Paternity leave is defined as leave available only to the father; it does not include leave available to both parents. %If a father can take paid paternity leave only if the mother does not take her maternity leave, the assumption is that the mother takes her full entitle- ment to maternity leave. 51c. What is the length of paid parental leave? %This is the mandatory minimum number of calendar days of parental leave which by law must be paid by the government, the employer or both. %If parental leave is an individual rather than a family entitlement, the assumption is that only one parent takes the full entitlement. %If the law mandates that the length of parental leave is not a specified amount of time but is rather worded “until the child reaches a [certain] age,” postnatal maternity leave days are subtracted from the number of parental leave days. %Parental leave is counted only if it is contiguous with maternity and paternity leave. %It is assumed that the mother and the father both take the full maternity and paternity leave available to them before taking parental leave. %If there are several parental leave schemes that the parents or family can choose from, it is assumed that parents select the scheme that pays the most. 52a. Who pays maternity leave benefits? %This question covers whether maternity leave benefits are funded by the government, the employer or both; if only the employer funds the benefits, the employer bears the entire cost and pays the employee directly. %Employer contributions to government funds (such as social security) that pay maternity benefits are not considered employer payment of maternity benefits. %If the law provides that the government must reim- burse the employer for all maternity leave benefits paid to employees, the answer is “government 100%.” If the government only reimburses a portion of the benefits, the answer is “government and employer.” %If the answer is “N/A,” no paid maternity leave is available. 52b. Who pays paternity leave benefits? %This question covers whether paternity leave benefits are funded by the government, the employer or both; if only the employer funds paternity leave benefits, the employer bears the entire cost and pays the em- ployee directly. %Employer contributions to government funds (such as social security) that pay paternity benefits are not considered employer payments of paternity benefits. Women, Business and the Law 201660 %If the law provides that the government must reim- burse the employer for paternity leave benefits paid to employees, it is considered a government payment of the portion reimbursed. %If the answer is “N/A,” no paid paternity leave is available. 52c. Who pays parental leave benefits? %This question covers whether parental leave benefits are funded by the government, the employer or both; if the employer alone funds parental leave benefits, the employer bears the entire cost and pays the em- ployee directly. %Employer contributions to government funds, such as social security, that pay parental benefits are not considered employer payments of parental benefits. %If the law provides that the government must reim- burse the employer for parental leave benefits paid to employees, the government is considered to be paying the portion reimbursed. %If the answer is “N/A,” no paid parental leave is available. 53a. What percentage of wages is paid during maternity leave? %This is the total percentage of wages covered by all sources during paid maternity leave; when different percentages of wages are covered at different stages of maternity leave, a weighted average is calculated; weights are proportional to the duration of each stage. %If the law sets a maximum amount of maternity ben- efits that can be paid or does not stipulate an exact percentage, it is assumed that the woman earns the equivalent of the average value-added per worker. The average value-added per worker is the ratio of an economy’s GNI per capita to the working-age popula- tion as a percentage of the total population. %If the answer is “N/A,” no paid maternity leave is available. 53b. What percentage of wages is paid during paternity leave? %This is the total percentage of wages covered by all sources during paid paternity leave; when different percentages of wages are covered at different stages of paternity leave, a weighted average is calculated; weights are proportional to the duration of each stage. %If the law sets a maximum amount of paternity ben- efits that can be paid or does not stipulate an exact percentage, it is assumed that the man earns the equivalent of the average value-added per worker. The average value-added per worker is the ratio of an economy’s GNI per capita to the working-age popula- tion as a percentage of the total population. %If the answer is “N/A,” no paid paternity leave is available. 53c. What percentage of wages is paid during parental leave? %This is the total percentage of wages covered by all sources during paid parental leave. %The answer is “Partially paid” if the total percentage of wages paid is less than 100%. %If the answer is “N/A,” no paid parental leave is available. 54a. What is the length of unpaid maternity leave? %This is the mandatory minimum number of calendar days of unpaid maternity leave that an employer must allow an employee to take, whether or not she elects to take it. Parental leave that is optional for both par- ents is not covered here. %If leave is provided but is not contiguous with the birth, the leave is not considered unpaid maternity leave because it can be taken at any point after the child is born. %Unpaid maternity leave is in addition to any paid ma- ternity leave available. 54b. What is the length of unpaid paternity leave? %This is the mandatory minimum number of calendar days of unpaid paternity leave that an employer must allow an employee to take; parental leave that is op- tional for both parents is not included here. %If a father can take unpaid paternity leave only if the mother does not take her maternity leave, it is as- sumed that the mother takes her full entitlement of maternity leave. %Unpaid paternity leave is in addition to any paid pa- ternity leave available. 54c. What is the length of unpaid parental leave? %This is the number of calendar days of unpaid paren- tal leave that an employer must allow an employee to take. %Unpaid parental leave is in addition to any paid paren- tal leave available. 61 Data Notes Data Notes %If unpaid parental leave is an individual rather than a family entitlement, the assumption is that only one parent takes it. 55a. How many days of unpaid parental leave must be taken by the mother? %The question captures whether there is a minimum number of calendar days of unpaid parental leave that can be taken only by the mother and therefore can- not be shared with the father. %If the answer is “N/A,” no unpaid parental leave is available. 55b. How many days of unpaid parental leave must be taken by the father? %The question captures whether there is a minimum number of calendar days of unpaid parental leave that can be taken only by the father and therefore cannot be shared with the mother. %If the answer is “N/A,” no unpaid parental leave is available. 56a. How many days of paid parental leave must be taken by the mother? %The question captures whether there is a minimum number of calendar days of paid parental leave that can be taken only by the mother and therefore can- not be shared with the father. %If the answer is “N/A,” no paid parental leave is available. 56b. How many days of paid parental leave must be taken by the father? %The question captures whether there is a minimum number of calendar days of paid parental leave that can be taken only by the father and therefore cannot be shared with the mother. %If the answer is “N/A,” no paid parental leave is available. Workplace protections For this subtopic seven questions examine women’s legal rights in the workplace: 57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? %This question captures whether employers are legally obliged to pay equal remuneration to male and fe- male employees who do work of equal value. %“Remuneration” refers to the ordinary, basic or mini- mum wage or salary and any additional emoluments payable directly or indirectly, whether in cash or in kind, by the employer to the worker and arising out of the worker’s employment. %“Work of equal value” refers not only to the same or similar jobs but also to different jobs of the same value. 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gen- der in hiring? %This question is designed to determine whether the law specifically prevents or penalizes gender-based discrimination in the hiring process; the law may prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of gender but be silent about whether job applicants are protected from discrimination. %Hiring refers to the process of employing a person for wages and making a selection by presenting a candi- date with a job offer. %Job advertisements, selection criteria and recruit- ment, although equally important, are not considered “hiring” for purposes of this question. 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? %This question is designed to determine whether an employer is allowed to inquire about the family status of a prospective employee during a job interview; the law may prohibit discrimination based on this infor- mation but be silent about whether employers are allowed to ask for it in the first place. %Family status refers to both whether the applicant is married and has children. %The answer is “Yes” if the employer may not ask whether the applicant is married or has children. %If the law prohibits employers from asking prospec- tive employees personal information, it is assumed that family status constitutes personal information. 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? %This question is designed to determine whether preg- nancy can serve as grounds for dismissal. %The answer is “Yes” if the law explicitly prohibits or penalizes the dismissal of pregnant women. 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after ma- ternity leave? %The question takes into account paid and unpaid ma- ternity leave and captures whether the employer has Women, Business and the Law 201662 a legal obligation to reinstate the returning employee in an equivalent or better position and salary than the employee had pre-leave. %Where the maternity leave regime explicitly states that the employee may not be indefinitely replaced, the answer is assumed to be “Yes.” %Where the maternity leave regime explicitly estab- lishes a suspension of the employee’s contract, the answer is assumed to be “Yes.” %In economies that also have parental leave and the law guarantees return after the leave to the same or an equivalent position paid at the same rate but is silent on guaranteeing the same position after mater- nity leave, the answer is “Yes.” %The answer is “N/A” if no paid or unpaid maternity leave is available. 62. Are employers required to provide break time for nursing mothers? %The answer is “Yes” if the law specifically requires firms and employers to provide break time for nursing mothers who breastfeed at work; such a requirement may depend on the size of the firm or the proportion of women it employs. 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? %The answer is “Yes” if the law offers employees who have minor children easier access to flexible work schedule arrangements or part-time work than em- ployees who are not parents of minor children. Retirement and pensions For this subtopic there are six questions on retirement and pen- sions. The following assumptions are specific to this subtopic: %If retirement is governed not by age but by number of years worked or number of years in which contributions have been made, or if transitional provisions increase or decrease the retirement age over a period of years, it is assumed that the worker is currently 40 years old and started working at age 25. %Answers are rounded to the nearest year. 64a. What is the age at which a man can retire and receive full benefits? %It is assumed that the retiree has completed all the necessary qualifications to retire and receive full benefits. %If there is no national law on retirement benefits, the answer is “N/A.”64b. What is the age at which a woman can retire and receive full benefits? %It is assumed that the retiree has completed all the necessary qualifications to retire and receive full benefits. %If there is no national law on retirement benefits, the answer is “N/A.” 65a. What is the age at which a man can retire and receive partial benefits? %This is the age at which a man can retire but not with full pension benefits, either because he did not ac- cumulate enough work experience or contributions, or because he has not reached the age that would qualify him for a full pension. %If there is no specified age at which a man can retire and receive partial benefits, the answer is the same as the age at which a man can retire and receive full benefits (see 64a). %If there is no national law on retirement benefits, the answer is “N/A.” 65b. What is the age at which a woman can retire and receive partial benefits? %This is the age at which a woman can retire but not with full pension benefits, either because she did not accumulate enough work experience or contri- butions, or because she did not reach the age that would qualify her for full pension. %If there is no specified age at which a woman can retire and receive partial benefits, the answer is the same as the age at which she can retire and receive full benefits (see 64b). %If there is no national law on retirement benefits, the answer is “N/A.” 66a.What is the mandatory retirement age for men? %This is the age at which a man must cease employ- ment or loses the right to continue working for his employer. Even if the law allows employers and employees to contract for work beyond that age, retirement is still considered mandatory because the employer can legally oblige the employee to retire. %“N/A” means there is no age at which a man is re- quired to retire. 66b. What is the mandatory retirement age for women? %This is the age at which a woman must cease em- ployment or loses the right to continue working for her employer. Even if the law allows employers and 63 Data Notes Data Notes employees to contract for work beyond that age, retirement is still considered mandatory because the employer can legally oblige the employee to retire. %“N/A” means there is no age at which a woman is required to retire. Working hours and industry restrictions The 12 questions for this subtopic cover working hour and job- specific restrictions on women. Restrictions specific to pregnant women or nursing mothers are not covered here. For purposes of this section, it is assumed that the woman gave all necessary permissions, including written consent. The assumption that the woman is employed in the food retail sector does not apply here; restrictions for all industries are counted. 67. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women work the same night hours as men? %This question is designed to determine whether non- pregnant and nonnursing women—but not men—are prohibited from working at night. Night-hour restric- tions on women in specified industries are captured in later questions. %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on women working at night. If the law conditions wom- en’s ability to work at night on employer compliance with safety measures (such as providing transporta- tion to and from work), the answer is also “Yes.” %The answer is “No” if the law %broadly prohibits women from working at night, or %broadly prohibits women from working at night but provides for exceptions, such as in cases of force majeure. %Where the law indicates that a given ministry or min- ister may promulgate regulations restricting women’s work at night, this is considered a restriction. 68. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women do the same jobs as men? %This question is designed to determine if there are specific jobs that women explicitly or implicitly cannot perform except in limited circumstances. %Both partial and full restrictions on women’s work are counted as restrictions. For example, if women are only allowed to work in certain jobs within the min- ing industry, e.g., as health care professionals within mines but not as miners, this is a restriction. %Explicit restrictions on women doing certain jobs, such as mining, are examined, as are implicit restric- tions stating that women cannot work in “hazardous” or “arduous” conditions, or in jobs deemed morally or socially inappropriate. %Where the law indicates that a given ministry or min- ister may promulgate regulations restricting women’s work in particular industries, this is considered a restriction. Questions 69a to 71c disaggregate the information collected in question 68 to determine in which job categories women face restrictions. Implicit restrictions 69a. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women work in jobs deemed hazardous in the same way as men? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no laws that prohibit women from working in a broad and subjective cat- egory of jobs deemed “hazardous.” %The answer is “No” if the employer can determine whether particular jobs are too hazardous for women but not for men. In such cases, the law explicitly uses the term “hazardous” or its synonyms to describe a broad category of jobs that women—but not men— are prohibited from doing. Work of a hazardous nature includes, for example, jobs that could have a harmful effect on or increased risk to women’s lives or health, given women’s psycho-physical qualities, or jobs not deemed to have a harmful effect on or increased risk to men’s life or health given men’s psycho-physical qualities. %Where the law indicates that a given minister or min- istry may promulgate regulations restricting women’s work in hazardous jobs, the answer is “No.” 69b. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women work in jobs deemed morally or socially inappropriate 7 in the same way as men? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no laws that prohibit women from working in a broad and subjective cate- gory of jobs deemed morally or socially inappropriate. %The answer is “No” if the employer can de ter mine whether particular jobs are mor al ly in appropriate or socially harmful for women but not for men. In such cases, the law explicitly uses the term “morally inappropriate” or its synonyms to describe a broad category of jobs that women—but not men—are pro- hibited from doing. Work that is morally inappropriate includes, for example, employment that is considered not in accordance with the “moral development” only of women. %Where the law indicates that a given minister or min- istry may promulgate regulations restricting women’s Women, Business and the Law 201664 work in morally or socially inappropriate jobs, the answer is “No.” 69c. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women work in jobs deemed arduous in the same way as men? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no laws that prohibit women from working in a broad and subjective cat- egory of jobs deemed arduous. %The answer is “No” if the employer can determine whether particular jobs are too arduous for women but not for men. In such cases, the law explicitly uses the term “arduous” or its synonyms to describe a broad category of jobs that women—but not men— are prohibited from doing. Work of an arduous nature includes jobs that involve particularly hard manual labor or jobs that are considered to exceed women’s capabilities. %Where the law indicates that a given minister or min- istry may promulgate regulations restricting women’s work in arduous jobs, the answer is “No.” Explicit restrictions on occupations and sectors 70a.Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women work in mining in the same way as men? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on women working in the mining industry. %The answer is “No” if there are full or partial restric- tions on women working in the mining industry. 70b. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women work in facto- ries in the same way as men? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on women working in factories. %The answer is “No” if there are full or partial restric- tions on women working in factories. 70c. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women work in con- struction in the same way as men? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on women working in construction. %The answer is “No” if there are full or partial restric- tions on women working in construction. 70d. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women work in the same occupations as men? 8 %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on women working in specific occupations or sectors other than mining, construction and factory work. %The answer is “No” if there are restrictions on women working in specific occupations or sectors other than mining, construction and factory work. Explicit restrictions on job-related tasks 71a. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women work in metal- working in the same way as men? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on women working in metal work. %The answer is “No” if there are full or partial restric- tions on women working in metal work. 71b. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women engage in jobs requiring lifting weights above a threshold in the same way as men? %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on women engaging in jobs with a minimum weight- lifting requirement, or if there are no differences be- tween the amount of weight men and women can lift. %The answer is “No” if there are full or partial restric- tions on women engaging in such jobs. %The answer is also “No” if women cannot perform work requiring heavy lifting, for example, if the law prohibits women from working in jobs that involve the loading and unloading of goods. 71c. Can nonpregnant and nonnursing women do the same job-related tasks as men? 9 %Job-related tasks refers to specified actions women are prohibited from doing, materials or substances women are prohibited from working with, or par- ticular settings women are prohibited from working in. For purposes of this question, metalwork and lift- ing weights above a set threshold are not included because they are captured separately in previous questions. %The answer is “Yes” if there are no restrictions on women doing the same job-related tasks as men. %The answer is “No” if there are restrictions on women doing particular job-related tasks but not on men do- ing them. Protecting women from violence The indicator on protecting women from violence examines the existence and scope of laws covering domestic violence, sexual harassment, marital rape, age of marriage and protec- tion orders. 65 Data Notes Data Notes Assumptions It is assumed that the woman %Resides in the main business city of the economy being examined. %Has reached the legal age of majority and is capable of making decisions as an adult. If there is no legal age of majority, the woman is assumed to be 30 years old. %Is sane, competent, in good health, has no criminal record and is a lawful citizen of the economy where she resides. The answers to the questions below are based on statutory or codified law for civil law systems, and on case law, which for common law systems is law established by judicial decisions in cases that set binding precedents. Customary law is not taken into account unless it has been codified or upheld by case law. The answers are based solely on the letter of the law and not on how the law is applied in practice. Domestic violence This subtopic covers the existence and scope of laws on domes- tic violence. Domestic violence is gender-specific, commonly directed against women, and occurring within the family and in intimate relationships. Intimate relationships may be with either spouses or unmarried intimate partners. The violence can take the form of physical, sexual, emotional or financial abuse. There are 14 questions for this subtopic: 72. Is there domestic violence legislation? %The answer is “Yes” if %there is legislation addressing domestic violence: violence between spouses, within the family or members of the same household, or in interperson- al relationships, including intimate partner violence that is subject to criminal sanctions or provides for protection orders for domestic violence, or %the legislation addresses “cruel, inhuman or de- grading treatment” or “harassment” that clearly affects physical or mental health, and it is implied that such behavior is considered domestic violence. %The answer is “No” if %there is no legislation addressing domestic vio- lence, or what does so refers to or prohibits do- mestic violence but does not provide for sanctions or orders of protection, or %the provision enables a woman to obtain a protec- tion order only if the husband has been convicted of the offense or the wife has ceased to reside in the common home, or %the provision protects only a specific category of women (e.g., pregnant) or defines the offense in terms of specific motives (e.g., violence against a person in connection with performing a profes- sional or civil duty), or %there is only a provision that heightens penalties for general crimes covered in the criminal code if committed between spouses or within the family. 73. If there is no legislation specifically protecting against domestic violence, are there aggravating penalties 10 for crimes against a spouse or family member?11 %The answer is “Yes” if penalties are increased for offenses committed by a spouse, family member or intimate partner but there is no other provision on domestic violence. 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? 12 %The answer is “Yes” if %the law addressing domestic violence clearly es- tablishes criminal penalties for domestic violence offenses, or %the domestic violence law does not prescribe crimi- nal sanctions but states that domestic violence of- fenses will be sanctioned in accordance with the criminal code, or %domestic violence is addressed in the criminal code, which criminalizes violence by or against a spouse, a family member or an intimate partner, or %the criminal code provides for aggravated penalties if an offense is committed by or against a spouse, a family member or an intimate partner. %The answer is “No” if %the domestic violence law does not provide for criminal sanctions or the provision on sanctions does not protect individuals from violence by or against a spouse, a family member or an intimate partner, or %the provision addressing domestic violence prohib- its only the conduct or establishes only noncriminal penalties or penalties for violating a protection order. 75a. Does domestic violence legislation cover physical violence? %The answer is “Yes” if %the term “physical” violence or abuse is clearly de- fined or stated in the law or provision as a form of domestic violence, or Women, Business and the Law 201666 %the language in the provision can clearly be inter- preted as treating physical violence or abuse as a form of domestic violence, including cruel or inhu- man treatment, or harassment if stated as affect- ing physical health. %The answer is “No” if the domestic violence law does not use the term “physical” violence or abuse or other language that can clearly be interpreted as physical violence or abuse. 75b. Does domestic violence legislation cover sexual violence? %The answer is “Yes” if %the term “sexual” violence or abuse is clearly de- fined or stated in the law or provision as a form of domestic violence, or %language in the provision can clearly be inter- preted as treating sexual violence or abuse as a form of domestic violence, including rape between spouses. %The answer is “No” if %the domestic violence law does not contain the term “sexual” violence or abuse or other language that can clearly be interpreted as referring to sexual violence or abuse, or %the provision on sexual abuse is not classified as occurring within the context of domestic violence, or if legislation on sexual abuse covers only female genital mutilation or rape. 75c. Does domestic violence legislation cover emotional violence? %The answer is “Yes” if %the term “psychological” or “emotional” violence or abuse is clearly defined or stated in the law as a form of domestic violence, or %the law contains language that can clearly be in- terpreted as psychological or emotional violence or abuse being a form of domestic violence, such as outrages upon personal dignity, humiliating and degrading treatment and harassment, if affecting mental health, and harm, if interpreted as emo- tional harm. %The answer is “No” if the domestic violence law does not contain the term “psychological” or “emotional” violence or abuse or other language that can clearly be interpreted as psychological or emotional violence or abuse.75d. Does domestic violence legislation cover economic violence? %The answer is “Yes” if %the term “financial” or “economic” violence or abuse is clearly defined or stated in the law as a form of domestic violence, or %the law contains language that can clearly be inter- preted as financial or economic violence or abuse, or %a provision covers the use of violence that causes or results in consequences affecting the livelihood of the victim. %The answer is “No” if the domestic violence provi- sion does not use the term “financial” or “economic” violence or abuse, or other language that can clearly be interpreted as financial or economic violence or abuse. 76. Does legislation on domestic violence protect family members? 13 %The answer is “Yes” if %the law addressing domestic violence clearly pro- tects spouses or married couples, or %the law clearly protects family members or mem- bers of the same household, including cohabiting individuals. %The answer is “No” if the law addressing domestic violence does not cover married couples, spouses, family members or members of the same household. 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? 14 %The answer is “Yes” if it clearly protects former part- ners or spouses. %The answer is “No” if it does not clearly protect for- mer partners or spouses. 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried inti- mate partners? %The answer is “Yes” if the legislation clearly protects women in unmarried, intimate relationships, including cohabiting and noncohabiting partners. %The answer is “No” if the legislation only covers mar- ried couples or spouses and does not protect women in unmarried, intimate relationships. %The answer is also “No” if the legislation covers de facto spouses, defined as persons who have gone through a form of ceremony recognized as a marriage but that has not been registered or is not capable of being registered. 67 Data Notes Data Notes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist?15 %The answer is “Yes” if victims of domestic violence can obtain a protection order in cases of domestic violence. 80. Do protection orders provide for removal of the perpetra- tor from the home? 16 %The answer is “Yes” if the protection order obtained in cases of domestic violence provides for removal of the perpetrator from the home or ensures the perpe- trator does not approach the home. 81. Do protection orders cover prohibition of contact and maintaining distance from the survivor? 17 %The answer is “Yes” if the protection order obtained in cases of domestic violence provides for prohibiting contact with the survivor and/or requiring the per- petrator to maintain a geographic distance from the survivor or contains similar language. 82. Is there a specialized court or procedure for cases of do- mestic violence? %The answer is “Yes” if the law %establishes a court with exclusive jurisdiction on matters related to domestic violence, or %provides revised rules of civil procedure or specially trained judges for matters related to domestic vio- lence in a nonspecialized court, or %establishes special procedures for protection or restraining orders for cases of domestic violence. %The answer is “No” if there are no special courts, pro- cedures or protection or restraining orders for cases of domestic violence. Sexual harassment Sexual harassment is any unwelcome sexual advance, request for sexual favor, verbal or physical conduct or gesture of a sexual nature or any other behavior of a sexual nature that might reasonably be expected or be perceived to cause offense or humiliation to another. 18 Such harassment may be but is not necessarily of a form that interferes with work, is made a condition of employment or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment. There are nine questions for this subtopic. 83a. Is there legislation that specifically addresses sexual harassment? %The question is meant to capture whether there is a law or specific provisions on sexual harassment; pro- visions may be general or apply only to employment. %The answer is “Yes” if %legislation specifically addresses and protects against sexual harassment, including unwelcome sexual advances; requests for sexual favors; verbal or physical conduct or gestures of a sexual nature; annoyance, if understood to include harassment with sexual content; or any other behavior of a sexual nature that might reasonably be expected or be perceived to cause offense or humiliation to another, or %sexual harassment is considered “discrimination,” and legislation protects against discrimination, or %there is a provision protecting against sexual ha- rassment in employment, including provisions on inducing indecent or lewd behavior coupled with financial or official dependence or authority, abuse of position or authority, or language that can be clearly interpreted to mean such dependence or abuse. %The answer is “No” if %the law does not specifically address sexual harass- ment, or %the behavior or gesture of sexual nature is per- formed using force or violence or the threat of force or violence, which is understood to constitute a crime, e.g., sexual assault or abuse, or %the conduct covered in the legislation is not di- rected at a specific individual, or %the legislation allows an employee to terminate employment based on sexual harassment but pro- vides for no other protection (however, a provision allowing the employer to terminate an employee’s contract for committing sexual harassment will be considered), or %the legislation protects only a specific category of women or those in a specific area or sector of em- ployment, e.g., protection from sexual harassment in political functions, or applies only to government or state-owned enterprises, or %the legislation accounts only for sexual acts, in- cluding intercourse or copulation, as clearly involv- ing contact of or with genital organs, or %the legislation states only that the employer has a duty to prevent sexual harassment, but there are no provisions to prohibit or provide sanctions for sexual harassment, or %the legislation addresses harassment in general but makes no reference to acts of a sexual nature or contact. Women, Business and the Law 201668 83b. Are there civil remedies for sexual harassment?19 %The question covers whether the law provides for civil remedies such as compensation for victims of sexual harassment or recovery of monetary damages. %The answer is “Yes” if %the legislation provides for civil remedies or com- pensation for victims of sexual harassment, or %there is a provision on sexual harassment in the criminal code that provides for reparation of dam- ages for offenses covered by the code. 83c. Are there criminal penalties for sexual harassment? %The answer is “Yes” if legislation specifies criminal sanctions, such as fines and imprisonment, for sexual harassment. %The answer is “No” if %there are no criminal sanctions for sexual harass- ment, or %the legislation on sexual harassment refers to penalties for more serious offenses in the criminal code, such as sexual assault, or %the law prohibits only sexual harassment in em- ployment and sets forth only that the employer should apply discretionary sanctions. 84a. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in employment? %The question covers provisions on se xual harassment in the workplace or in employment, whether or not sanctions apply. %The answer is “Yes” if %there is legislation that specifically protects against sexual harassment in employment, including un- welcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, verbal or physical conduct or gestures of a sexual nature, annoyance if understood to include harassment with sexual content, or any other be- havior of a sexual nature that might reasonably be expected or be perceived to cause offense or humiliation to another in connection with employ- ment, including provisions on inducing indecent or lewd behavior coupled with financial or official dependence or authority, abuse of position or au- thority, or language that can be clearly interpreted to mean such dependence or abuse, or %sexual harassment is deemed discrimination in employment, and the law protects against discrimination. %The answer is “No” if %there is no legislation specifically addressing sexual harassment in employment, or %a behavior or gesture of sexual nature uses force or violence or the threat of force or violence, which is understood to constitute a crime, e.g., sexual as- sault or abuse, or %the conduct covered by legislation is not directed at a specific individual, or %the legislation allows an employee to terminate an employment contract based on sexual harassment but provides for no other protection, although a provision allowing the employer to terminate an employee’s contract for committing sexual harass- ment will be taken into account, or %the legislation covers only public or only private sector employees, but not both, or %the legislation protects only a specific category of women or only a specific area of employment, e.g., protection from sexual harassment in political functions, or applies only to government or state- owned enterprises, or %the legislation refers only to sexual acts, including intercourse or copulation, as clearly involving con- tact of or with genital organs, or %the legislation states only that the employer has a duty to take measures to prevent sexual harass- ment, but there are no provisions prohibiting or providing sanctions for sexual harassment, or %the legislation addresses harassment in general but makes no reference to acts of a sexual nature or contact. 84b. Are there civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment? 20 %The question covers whether the law provides for civil remedies for sexual harassment in employment, such as compensation for victims or recovery of monetary damages. %The answer is “Yes” if %the legislation provides for civil remedies or com- pensation for victims of sexual harassment in em- ployment, or %there is a provision on sexual harassment in the workplace in the criminal code that provides for reparation of damages for offenses covered by the code. 69 Data Notes Data Notes 84c. Are there criminal penalties for sexual harassment in employment? %The question covers sanctions such as imprisonment or fines specifically for sexual harassment in the workplace. %The answer is “Yes” if the legislation specifies criminal sanctions, such as fines and imprisonment, for sexual harassment in employment. %The answer is “No” if %there are no criminal sanctions for sexual harass- ment in employment, or %the law on sexual harassment refers to penalties for more serious offenses in the criminal code, such as for sexual assault, or %the law prohibits sexual harassment in employment but states only that the employer should apply dis- cretionary sanctions. 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? %The question covers provisions addressing sexual ha- rassment in education, educational facilities, schools or where the offender is in the role of educator, pro- fessor or in charge of the education of the victim, whether or not there are sanctions associated with the provision. %The answer is “Yes” if the legislation specifically covers sexual harassment in education or contains language that can clearly be interpreted as sexual harassment in education. %The answer is “No” if %the legislation does not specifically cover sexual harassment in education, or %it covers sexual harassment only in public or only in private education, but not in both. 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? %The answer is “Yes” if the legislation specifically covers sexual harassment in public places, includ- ing public spaces, in the public life or sphere, or in transportation. %The answer is “No” if the legislation does not cover sexual harassment in public places, public spaces, in public, in the public life or sphere, or in transportation.Child and early marriage 87a. What is the legal age of marriage for boys?21 %The legal age of marriage for boys is the age at which boys can be married without parental or another au- thority’s consent. %The legal age of marriage for boys is also the age before which boys are not allowed to be married, as- suming no exceptions are provided for. 87b. What is the legal age of marriage for girls? 22 %The legal age of marriage for girls is the age at which girls can be married without parental or another au- thority’s consent. %The legal age of marriage for girls is also the age before which girls are not allowed to be married, as- suming no exceptions are provided for. 88. Are there any exceptions to the legal age of marriage? 23 %The answer is “Yes” if girls or boys may get married before the specified legal age of marriage with the consent of, e.g., a parent, guardian, the judge, the court, or any other authority. 89. Does the law prohibit or invalidate child or early marriage? 24 %The answer is “Yes” if there are provisions that pre- vent the marriage of girls, boys, or both before they reach the legal age for marriage or the age of mar- riage with consent, including, for example, a prohibi- tion on registering the marriage or provisions stating that such a marriage is null and void. %The answer is “No” if %there are no provisions invalidating the marriage or prohibiting the registration under a minimum age, or %the marriage is invalid based on lack of consent of the parent or guardian when the law does not set a minimum age. 90. Are there penalties in the law for authorizing or knowingly entering into child or early marriage? 25 %The answer is “Yes” if there are enforcement mea- sures or sanctions in the law against anyone who allows, registers or celebrates the marriage of girls or boys violating the legal age requirements, including for any party to the marriage who is over the legal age of marriage and knowingly marries someone not of legal age. Women, Business and the Law 201670 Marital rape 91. Does legislation explicitly criminalize marital rape?26 %The answer is “Yes” if %there is legislation that explicitly criminalizes the act of marital rape by providing that rape or sexual assault provisions apply “irrespective of the nature of the relationship” between the perpetrator and complainant or by stating that “no marriage or other relationship shall constitute a defense to a charge of rape or sexual assault under the legisla- tion,” or %there is legislation that explicitly criminalizes the act of rape between (i) persons in marital relation- ships; (ii) relatives, when the law explicitly considers spouses relatives (but not for relatives in general); or (iii) persons in situations of abuse or depen- dency of family position (but not of dependency in general), when the law clearly includes spouses within the definition of family; or when legislation that explicitly criminalizes the act of rape states that the spouse is a potential offender or is not exempt from charges, or %marital relationships are an aggravating factor for the crimes of rape and sexual assault that includes elements of rape, or if the law sets out conditions in which the penalty for marital rape or rape by the husband is mitigated so that the criminalization of marital rape can be inferred. %The answer is “No” if %there are no criminal sanctions for the offense (i.e., the law only “prohibits” the act, provides for the application of protection orders, or “allows a judge to order a husband not to rape his wife”), or %the provision on marital rape applies only if the spouses are separated or in the process of getting separated, or %the provision covers only relationships of depen- dency in general, or financial or official depen- dence, or %the provision on rape applies only in certain cir- cumstances, such as sickness, or %the provision applies only to family members, and spouses are not clearly included in the definition of family. 92. If there is no specific provision that explicitly criminalizes marital rape, can a woman otherwise file a criminal com- plaint against her husband for rape? 27 %The answer is “Yes” if legislation entitles a woman to file a complaint for rape against her husband or partner, and does not exclude spouses from its application. %The answer is “No” if %the legislation on rape or sexual assault contains exemptions that prevent spouses from being charged with the offense or states that there is no crime of rape between husband and wife or within marriage, or %rape is not a codified crime. 93. Is the husband exempt from facing criminal penalties for rape (marital rape exemption)? 28 %The answer is “Yes” if %the legislation on rape or sexual assault, or general criminal law, exempts husbands or spouses from being charged with the offense or clearly states that there is no crime of rape between husband and wife or within marriage, or %the provision on rape between spouses is condi- tioned on the act being committed with violence. 94. Are perpetrators exempt from facing criminal charges for rape if they marry the victim? 29 %The answer is “Yes” if %the legislation on rape or sexual assault, or general criminal law, exempts the perpetrator from being charged with the offense if he marries the victim after the crime, or %the legislation provides for mitigated penalties if the perpetrator marries the victim after the crime. Summary of methodology changes There were several changes of methodology between Women, Business and the Law 2014 and Women, Business and the Law 2016. For that reason, the data presented on the website were recomputed to match the new methodology. In six of the topics there were changes of methodology as follows: Accessing institutions: includes new questions on whether legislative quotas exist for women candidates on candidate lists in national parliament and local government elections. Where such quotas exist the applicable percentage is stated. These new questions complement previous questions on reserved 71 Data Notes Data Notes seat quotas, allowing for a more accurate representation of how women’s political representation is promoted in a diver- sity of political systems.  The methodology for the question on whether customary law is recognized by the constitution has been revised to capture only cases in which customary law is widely applicable. The question no longer captures instances where customary law may only be applied by indigenous com- munities in restricted territories.  Going to court: explicit restrictions on women’s testimony rela- tive to men’s are taken into account. Unwritten laws, including unwritten religious laws, are excluded from this question. The questions on customary law and personal law courts only cover courts with exclusive jurisdiction. Providing incentives to work: the question on childcare now covers public childcare services, including preschools, which are either provided directly by the government or by government- subsidized private childcare institutions. New questions were added covering financial support provided by the government to parents with children under the age of primary education and the availability of a leave for employees specifically to care for a sick relative. Building credit: includes new questions that examine whether the law prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender and marital status by creditors in access to credit. Getting a job: the assumption that the woman or man is a non-managerial employee in the manufacturing sector work- ing for a firm of at least 50 employees has been modified. It is now assumed that the woman or man is a cashier in the food retail sector working for a supermarket or grocery store of at least 60 employees. For questions on the length of paid and unpaid parental leave, an assumption has been added that only one parent takes the full parental leave entitlement where parental leave is an individual entitlement. The questions on industry restrictions for women’s work have been further disag- gregated into 10 specific areas, rather than the previous 8. A question has been added to capture if there is any other sector where women cannot work apart from mining, construction and factories, which are considered separately. Additionally a question has been added to capture whether there are any other job-related tasks that women cannot do, apart from met- alwork or lifting weights above a certain threshold, which are examined separately. The question on whether non-pregnant and non-nursing women can work the same night hours as men now captures laws that broadly restrict women from working at night. Previously, restrictions on women working at night in factories were also captured by this question, as it was as- sumed that the woman works in the manufacturing sector. Where the law conditions women’s ability to work at night on employer compliance with safety measures (such as providing transportation to and from work), a restriction is not counted, as legislating safety measures can facilitate women’s ability to work at night. Protecting women from violence: the question on whether there is legislation specifically addressing domestic violence was revised to exclude provisions that only provide for aggra- vated penalties in case of crimes committed between spouses or family members and a new question was added to capture such provisions. The question addressing protection of victims of domestic violence was further disaggregated to determine whether the law specifically covers spouses or family members and former spouses or partners. A new question was added to determine whether the legislation establishes criminal penal- ties for domestic violence. Four new questions were included to cover explicit provisions on marital rape, the availability of general criminal law to prosecute for rape, and exemptions for perpetrators of rape when they are married or subsequently marry the victim. New questions were added examining the availability of protection orders for victims of domestic violence and whether they provide for removing the perpetrator from the home and prohibiting contact with the victim. Additionally, new questions were added to capture the legal age of mar- riage of boys and girls, exceptions to the legal age of marriage, provisions invalidating or prohibiting child or early marriage and penalties for authorizing or knowingly entering into child marriages. The questions on sexual harassment provisions were further disaggregated to cover the availability of civil remedies for victims of sexual harassment. Women, Business and the Law 201672 Notes 1 This is a new question. 2 This is a new question. 3 This is a new question. 4 This is a new question. 5 This is a new question. 6 This is a new question. 7 “Morally inappropriate” jobs are often not defined objectively but are left to employers to determine subjectively. However, some economies categorize such jobs as distributing images, working in casinos, or producing alcohol as morally inappropriate. 8 This is a new question. 9 This is a new question. 10 “Aggravated penalties” refers to circumstances that heighten the severity of the criminal act, leading to an increase in the perpetra- tor’s penalty or punishment. 11 This is a new question. 12 This is a new question. 13 This is a new question. 14 This is a new question. 15 This is a new question. 16 This is a new question. 17 This is a new question. 18 UNHCR. 2005. “UNHCR’s Policy Framework on Harassment, Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Authority.” http://www.un.org /womenwatch/osagi/UN_system_policies/(UNHCR)policy_on _harassment.pdf 19 This is a new question. 20 This is a new question. 21 This is a new question. 22 This is a new question. 23 This is a new question. 24 This is a new question. 25 This is a new question. 26 This is a new question. 27 This is a new question. 28 This is a new question. 29 This is a new question. Economy Tables Economy Tables AFGHANISTAN ALBANIA REGIONSouth Asia Europe & Central Asia INCOME GROUPLow income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION15,422,818 1,445,100 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 16% 52% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 27% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 30% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 30% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? Yes No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? No No Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? No Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 201674 AFGHANISTAN ALBANIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 90 10 N/A 365 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 65% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? N/A N/A 64 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? N/A N/A 61 62 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 65 65 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 16 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables75 ALGERIA ANGOLA REGIONMiddle East & North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION19,745,898 11,158,094 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 16% 65% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 35% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Ye s Ye s 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/AYe s Ye s Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 11 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 4 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 201676 ALGERIA ANGOLA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 3 N/A 90 0 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 28 1 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 54 57 59 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 45 50 59 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 54 60 59 60 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes No No Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes No Yes No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 19 19 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No Yes Economy Tables77 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA ARGENTINA REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION47,463 21,342,720 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION.. 55% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? No Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 30% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 30% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Separate with spousal consent Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 25 4 37. Of those, how many are women? 14 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 4% 5% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 201678 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA ARGENTINA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A No Yes No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 91 N/A N/A 90 2 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov N/A N/A Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 78% N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 60 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 60 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 66 66 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes Yes No Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables79 ARMENIA AUSTRALIA REGIONEurope & Central Asia High income: OECD INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION1,453,506 11,802,936 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 58% 71% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes No Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 20% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 7 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 15% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 201680 ARMENIA AUSTRALIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No Yes No Yes Yes N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes No No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 140 0 0 N/A N/A 126 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A N/A N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A N/A N/A Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 60 1025 N/A N/A 239 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No Yes 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes N/A 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 63 63 67 67 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 63 63 67 67 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No No Yes No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No No Yes No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 17 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables81 AUSTRIA AZERBAIJAN REGIONHigh income: OECD Europe & Central Asia INCOME GROUPHigh income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION4,364,011 4,796,225 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 71% 68% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Deferred community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 14 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 5 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 39% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? Yes No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 201682 AUSTRIA AZERBAIJAN BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 1% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes Yes N/A No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: Yes Yes No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 112 N/A 0 126 0 1039 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Gov N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A 647 0 14 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 60 63 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 65 65 60 63 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes Yes No Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables83 BAHAMAS, THE BAHRAIN REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION195,338 510,506 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 76% 41% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? No Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? N/A 7 37. Of those, how many are women? N/A 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? N/A No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 24% 47% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 201684 BAHAMAS, THE BAHRAIN BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A Yes No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 91 0 N/A 60 1 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov N/A N/A Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 7 N/A 15 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 55 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 40 45 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 60 60 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s N o 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No Yes Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 15 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No Yes Economy Tables85 BANGLADESH BARBADOS REGIONSouth Asia Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION78,362,971 143,333 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 60% 77% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes No 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes No Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 14% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 23% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 8 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 33% 30% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 201686 BANGLADESH BARBADOS BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 55% N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 112 N/A N/A 84 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 67 67 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 64 64 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 60 60 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes No Yes Yes No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? Yes No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 21 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables87 BELARUS BELGIUM REGIONEurope & Central Asia High income: OECD INCOME GROUPUpper middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION5,077,124 5,714,264 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 62% 62% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No No 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota 33% 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 50% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 50% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 12 12 37. Of those, how many are women? 5 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 7% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 201688 BELARUS BELGIUM BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 1% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes Yes No N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 126 N/A 1095 105 10 120 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A Gov Gov Emp & Gov Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A Partially paid 86% 80% Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A 0 0 0 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 60 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 60 65 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo No No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A Yes 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes No No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables89 BELIZE BENIN REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Low income FEMALE POPULATION170,087 5,315,341 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 52% 69% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No Yes 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 7 7 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 53% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No Yes No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 201690 BELIZE BENIN BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 1235% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 N/A N/A 98 3 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Emp & Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 80% N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes Yes No Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo No No Yes No No No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes No No No No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No Yes Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables91 BHUTAN BOLIVIA REGIONSouth Asia Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPLower middle income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION354,222 5,428,762 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 69% 66% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 50% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 50% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Other Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 5 7 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? No Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 201692 BHUTAN BOLIVIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No Yes No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 56 5 N/A 90 3 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Emp & Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? N/A N/A 57 58 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? N/A N/A 49 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s N o Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables93 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BOTSWANA REGIONEurope & Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION1,958,149 1,011,825 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 42% 75% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? No No Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 40% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 40% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 4 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 140% 14% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes No Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 201694 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BOTSWANA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: Yes Yes No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 365 7 N/A 84 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 60% 100% N/A 50% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 60 65 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 65 65 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? Yes No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 21 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables95 BRAZIL BRUNEI DARUSSALAM REGIONLatin America & Caribbean East Asia & Pacific INCOME GROUPUpper middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION102,721,419 208,876 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 65% 56% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes No Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 30% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 30% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property No default 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes No Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 11 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 117% 22% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? Yes No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No Yes No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 201696 BRAZIL BRUNEI DARUSSALAM BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Ye s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 120 5 N/A 91 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 14 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 65 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 55 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 65 70 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s N o Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables97 BULGARIA BURKINA FASO REGIONEurope & Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Low income FEMALE POPULATION3,717,047 8,753,094 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 64% 80% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 30% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 30% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 12 10 37. Of those, how many are women? 3 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No Yes No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 201698 BULGARIA BURKINA FASO BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 1425% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: Yes Yes No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 410 15 365 98 3 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Gov Gov Emp & Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 90% 90% Partially paid 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 0 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? Yes No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 63 65 56 56 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 63 65 56 56 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo Yes No Yes Yes No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 20 20 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? Yes No Economy Tables99 BURUNDI CAMBODIA REGIONSub-Saharan Africa East Asia & Pacific INCOME GROUPLow income Low income FEMALE POPULATION5,303,902 7,886,298 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 84% 82% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 30% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 30% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Full community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 7 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 223% 24% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No Yes No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? No Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016100 BURUNDI CAMBODIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 223% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 4 N/A 90 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov Emp N/A Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 50% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 55 55 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 60 60 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 21 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables101 CAMEROON CANADA REGIONSub-Saharan Africa High income: OECD INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION11,410,432 17,900,562 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 65% 75% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Husband Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? No N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? No Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? Yes No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 6 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 4 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 1436% 46% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016102 CAMEROON CANADA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 1% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No Yes Yes N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 3 N/A 105 N/A 245 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Gov N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 34% N/A Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 14 N/A 14 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No Yes 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 50 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s N o N o Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo No No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No Yes 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No Yes Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 21 21 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? Yes No Economy Tables103 CHAD CHILE REGIONSub-Saharan Africa High income: OECD INCOME GROUPLow income High income FEMALE POPULATION6,593,973 8,982,586 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 65% 55% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 40% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? .. .. Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Husband Husband Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? No Yes 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? No Yes No Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 6 10 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 20% 269% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016104 CHAD CHILE BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 2% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No Yes No N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 1 N/A 126 5 84 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Gov Emp Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 50% 100% N/A 100% 100% 100% 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 42 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 60 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 55 60 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo No Yes Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 21 21 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables105 CHINA COLOMBIA REGIONEast Asia & Pacific Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION657,033,636 24,878,046 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 70% 60% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? > 0 30% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 30% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Deferred community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No Yes 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? N/A 9 37. Of those, how many are women? N/A 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? N/A No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 49% 173% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016106 CHINA COLOMBIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes Yes Yes Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 128 3 N/A 98 10 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov Emp N/A Gov Gov N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 50 60 57 62 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 60 57 62 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes No No Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes No No Yes No Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 22 20 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables107 CONGO, DEM. REP. CONGO, REP. REGIONSub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPLow income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION34,905,563 2,279,702 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 72% 70% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% 30% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 50% 30% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? Yes No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Husband Husband Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? Yes Yes 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? No Yes No Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 656% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No Yes No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016108 CONGO, DEM. REP. CONGO, REP. BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 1% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 2 N/A 105 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Emp & Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 67% 100% N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 65 52 52 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 65 52 52 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 60 65 57 57 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo No No Yes No Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo No No Yes No No No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes No No Yes No No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? N/A No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 18 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables109 COSTA RICA CÔTE D’IVOIRE REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION2,430,743 10,209,279 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 51% 53% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 50% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Deferred community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Husband Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A Yes 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes No Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 7 7 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 57% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes No Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016110 COSTA RICA CÔTE D’IVOIRE BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 1279% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions NoYesNo NoNoNo DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 120 N/A N/A 98 2 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov N/A N/A Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 55 55 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 62 50 50 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 55 55 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo No No Yes Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 21 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables111 CROATIA CZECH REPUBLIC REGIONEurope & Central Asia High income: OECD INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION2,192,467 5,334,852 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 58% 65% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes No Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? > 0 No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? > 0 No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 13 15 37. Of those, how many are women? 5 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 13% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016112 CROATIA CZECH REPUBLIC BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: Yes Yes No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 208 N/A 120 196 N/A 1095 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A Gov Gov N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A Partially paid 70% N/A Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A 795 0 N/A 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No Yes 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 66 66 67 67 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 62 62 62 62 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables113 DENMARK DJIBOUTI REGIONHigh income: OECD Middle East & North Africa INCOME GROUPHigh income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION2,840,857 441,157 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 76% 39% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? No Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota 10% 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Deferred community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 16 12 37. Of those, how many are women? 5 6 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 14% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016114 DENMARK DJIBOUTI BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 973% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes Yes N/A No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No Yes No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 126 14 224 98 3 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Gov Gov Emp & Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 50% 50% Partially paid 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 0 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 67 67 55 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 67 67 55 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 60 60 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No Yes No No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables115 DOMINICA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION.. 5,264,218 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION.. 56% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? No Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 33% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 33% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 25 13 37. Of those, how many are women? 14 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 52% 1% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016116 DOMINICA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 N/A N/A 84 2 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Emp & Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 60% N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 65 65 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables117 ECUADOR EGYPT, ARAB REP. REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION7,993,615 41,511,797 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 58% 26% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota 10% 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota 25% 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 50% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Other Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? No Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? Yes No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 11 37. Of those, how many are women? 4 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 81% 171% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016118 ECUADOR EGYPT, ARAB REP. BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 12 N/A 90 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov Emp N/A Emp & Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 45 45 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 60 60 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No Yes Yes Yes No No No No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes No Yes No No No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes No No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? Yes Yes Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables119 EL SALVADOR EQUATORIAL GUINEA REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION3,361,085 379,731 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 51% 82% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 30% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 30% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes .. .. 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Deferred community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Separate with spousal consent Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes No Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 5 5 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 654% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016120 EL SALVADOR EQUATORIAL GUINEA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes No Yes No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 3 N/A 84 3 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 75% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 60 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 60 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 23 23 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No Yes Economy Tables121 ESTONIA ETHIOPIA REGIONHigh income: OECD Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPHigh income Low income FEMALE POPULATION704,249 48,229,992 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 72% 81% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No Yes 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 14% 46% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes No Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016122 ESTONIA ETHIOPIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 140 10 435 90 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Gov Gov Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% Partially paid 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 590 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? Yes No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 63 63 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes Yes No Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? Yes N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No Yes Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables123 FIJI FINLAND REGIONEast Asia & Pacific High income: OECD INCOME GROUPUpper middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION435,616 2,778,257 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 39% 73% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Deferred community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 6 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 59% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? Yes No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? No Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016124 FIJI FINLAND BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Ye s Ye s Ye s N o N o N /A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 N/A N/A 147 24 215 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Gov Gov Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 58% 58% Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 0 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 55 63 63 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 55 63 63 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? Yes No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No No 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables125 FRANCE GABON REGIONHigh income: OECD Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPHigh income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION34,135,260 850,885 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 67% 58% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? 20% No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 50% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Other 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Other Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes No Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 10 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 3 4 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 12% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? Yes No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016126 FRANCE GABON BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No N/A No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: Yes Yes No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 112 11 0 98 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Gov N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 73% 73% N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 1025 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 67 67 57 57 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 62 62 57 57 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 70 70 57 57 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s N o Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s N o Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes No No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 21 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables127 GEORGIA GERMANY REGIONEurope & Central Asia High income: OECD INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION2,380,984 41,167,323 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 61% 72% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota 30% 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Deferred community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Separate with spousal consent Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 16 37. Of those, how many are women? 3 5 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 31% 2% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016128 GEORGIA GERMANY BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 183 N/A N/A 98 N/A 360 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Emp & Gov N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 547 N/A N/A 0 N/A 679 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 60 60 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 65 67 67 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 65 63 63 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No No Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No No Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables129 GHANA GREECE REGIONSub-Saharan Africa High income: OECD INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION13,316,516 5,549,303 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 69% 59% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 33% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 33% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? Yes No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 14 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 5 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 31% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016130 GHANA GREECE BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes No No N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 N/A N/A 119 2 0 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 0 120 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 55 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables131 GRENADA GUATEMALA REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION53,026 8,121,898 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION.. 51% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? No Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 25 5 37. Of those, how many are women? 14 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 46% 36% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016132 GRENADA GUATEMALA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 90 N/A N/A 84 2 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov N/A N/A Emp & Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 88% N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 62 62 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 62 62 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables133 GUINEA GUYANA REGIONSub-Saharan Africa Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPLow income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION6,010,600 395,411 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 67% 45% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 30% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 30% 33% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? .. .. Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 11 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 4 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 6% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? Yes No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? No Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016134 GUINEA GUYANA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 N/A N/A 91 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov N/A N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 70% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 270 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No Yes 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 55 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 55 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo Yes No Yes No Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 21 21 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables135 HAITI HONDURAS REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPLow income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION5,292,357 4,127,197 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 63% 45% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 30% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 33% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 40% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 40% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Deferred community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Other Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? No Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 12 5 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 67% 108% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016136 HAITI HONDURAS BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 201% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No Yes Yes Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 42 N/A N/A 84 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Emp & Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 42 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 55 60 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 55 60 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 21 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables137 HONG KONG SAR, CHINA HUNGARY REGIONEast Asia & Pacific High income: OECD INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION3,852,616 5,174,659 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 60% 58% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 4 15 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 16% 32% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016138 HONG KONG SAR, CHINA HUNGARY BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: Yes Yes Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 70 3 N/A 168 5 590 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Gov Emp Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 80% 80% N/A 70% 100% Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 65 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 21 21 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables139 ICELAND INDIA REGIONHigh income: OECD South Asia INCOME GROUPHigh income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION162,643 612,195,535 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 82% 29% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? 40% > 0 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota 33% 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Deferred community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 12 28 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 10% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016140 ICELAND INDIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes No N/A No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 90 90 90 84 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Gov Gov Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 49% 49% Partially paid 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 0 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 67 67 58 58 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 67 67 50 50 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? Yes N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables141 INDONESIA IRAN, ISLAMIC REP. REGIONEast Asia & Pacific Middle East & North Africa INCOME GROUPLower middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION125,649,068 39,036,275 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 54% 18% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 30% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 30% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes No Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 12 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? Yes No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016142 INDONESIA IRAN, ISLAMIC REP. BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 90 2 N/A 270 14 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Gov Gov N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 67% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 55 55 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 55 45 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes Yes No Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 21 21 15 13 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables143 IRAQ IRELAND REGIONMiddle East & North Africa High income: OECD INCOME GROUPUpper middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION16,953,380 2,320,825 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 16% 63% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 25% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 25% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 30% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? Yes No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 11 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 6% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? Yes No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016144 IRAQ IRELAND BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 1% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A No No N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 72 N/A N/A 182 N/A 0 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 35% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 112 N/A 126 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 50 55 68 68 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 55 68 68 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s N o Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? Yes No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? Yes No Economy Tables145 ISRAEL ITALY REGIONHigh income: OECD High income: OECD INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION4,144,558 31,520,325 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 67% 54% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? No Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? > 0 33% 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 33% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Deferred community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 15 15 37. Of those, how many are women? 4 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 26% 19% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No Yes No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016146 ISRAEL ITALY BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No Yes N/A No No N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 0 0 150 1 300 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Gov Gov Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 80% 100% Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 3 365 0 0 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 62 67 66 66 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 66 66 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 67 67 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables147 JAMAICA JAPAN REGIONLatin America & Caribbean High income: OECD INCOME GROUPUpper middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION1,381,405 65,306,963 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 62% 65% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Other 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 31 15 37. Of those, how many are women? 14 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 179% 15% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016148 JAMAICA JAPAN BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes Yes No N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 56 N/A N/A 98 N/A 309 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Gov N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 67% N/A Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 28 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 65 65 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s N o Ye s Ye s N o Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 20 20 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables149 JORDAN KAZAKHSTAN REGIONMiddle East & North Africa Europe & Central Asia INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION3,237,104 8,969,881 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 16% 75% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 10% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 25% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? Yes No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? No Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 12 7 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 51% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016150 JORDAN KAZAKHSTAN BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 525% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 70 N/A N/A 126 N/A 0 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A 1039 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 60 63 63 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 50 63 63 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes Yes No Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No Yes No No No No No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo No No No No No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? Yes No Economy Tables151 KENYA KOREA, REP. REGIONSub-Saharan Africa High income: OECD INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION22,824,526 25,355,149 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 63% 56% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 33% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 33% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 50% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 50% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Other 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 7 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 43% 67% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016152 KENYA KOREA, REP. BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes No Yes N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 90 14 N/A 90 3 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Emp & Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 2 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 50 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s N o N o Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes No Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 19 19 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables153 KOSOVO KUWAIT REGIONEurope & Central Asia Middle East & North Africa INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION.. 1,400,030 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION.. 45% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 30% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 30% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes No Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 5 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 16% 41% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016154 KOSOVO KUWAIT BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes Yes No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No Yes No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 270 2 3 70 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov Emp Emp Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 63% 100% 100% 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 90 14 0 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 N/A N/A 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 65 65 N/A N/A 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes No Yes No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 17 15 88. Are there exceptions? Yes No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables155 KYRGYZ REPUBLIC LAO PDR REGIONEurope & Central Asia East Asia & Pacific INCOME GROUPLower middle income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION2,956,715 3,460,737 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 60% 80% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 30% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes .. .. 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Other 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? Yes No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 11 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 5 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No Yes No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016156 KYRGYZ REPUBLIC LAO PDR BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No Yes No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 126 0 0 105 3 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov N/A N/A Emp Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 19% N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 5 1039 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? Yes No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 58 63 55 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 58 63 55 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo No No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables157 LATVIA LEBANON REGIONEurope & Central Asia Middle East & North Africa INCOME GROUPHigh income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION1,080,003 2,220,844 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 73% 26% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Other Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 7 10 37. Of those, how many are women? 3 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 18% 665% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016158 LATVIA LEBANON BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No Yes No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 112 10 547.5 70 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Gov Gov Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 80% 80% Partially paid 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 0 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? Yes No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 64 64 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 65 65 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 64 64 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes No Yes No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 .. .. 88. Are there exceptions? Yes .. 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes .. 90. Is child marriage penalized? No .. Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No Yes Economy Tables159 LESOTHO LIBERIA REGIONSub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPLower middle income Low income FEMALE POPULATION1,060,985 2,181,703 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 60% 60% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 33% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? .. .. Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? Yes No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? N/A 5 37. Of those, how many are women? N/A 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? N/A No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 74% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016160 LESOTHO LIBERIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 N/A N/A 90 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 70 70 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 70 70 50 50 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No No No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables161 LITHUANIA LUXEMBOURG REGIONEurope & Central Asia High income: OECD INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION1,581,028 279,181 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 71% 62% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 13% 18% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016162 LITHUANIA LUXEMBOURG BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Ye s Ye s Ye s N /A N /A N /A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No Yes No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 126 30 309 112 2 180 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Gov Gov Gov Emp Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 365 0 0 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 65 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 65 65 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables163 MACEDONIA, FYR MADAGASCAR REGIONEurope & Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Low income FEMALE POPULATION1,052,739 11,822,431 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 51% 88% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 33% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 33% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 4 4 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 74% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016164 MACEDONIA, FYR MADAGASCAR BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No Yes Yes N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No Yes Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 270 N/A 0 98 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Emp & Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A 90 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 62 64 55 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 62 64 55 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 64 64 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No No Yes No No No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables165 MALAWI MALAYSIA REGIONSub-Saharan Africa East Asia & Pacific INCOME GROUPLow income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION8,389,623 15,527,460 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 85% 47% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes Yes No 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 21 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 4 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 5% 15% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No Yes No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016166 MALAWI MALAYSIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 56 N/A N/A 60 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 50 50 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 50 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 16 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables167 MALDIVES MALI REGIONSouth Asia Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Low income FEMALE POPULATION174,623 7,819,851 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 58% 52% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? No default Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 7 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 4363% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016168 MALDIVES MALI BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 1372% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 60 3 0 98 3 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Gov Gov N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 365 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 58 58 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 65 65 53 53 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 16 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables169 MALTA MAURITANIA REGIONMiddle East & North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPHigh income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION213,853 1,977,795 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 48% 29% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota > 0 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota 20% 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 50% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Other Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes No Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes No Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 21 6 37. Of those, how many are women? 6 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 21% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? Yes No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016170 MALTA MAURITANIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 1% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No Yes No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 126 1 0 98 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov Emp N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 82% 100% N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 120 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 55 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 65 65 55 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 65 65 55 60 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No Yes No No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables171 MAURITIUS MEXICO REGIONSub-Saharan Africa Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION639,144 63,806,469 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 49% 48% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 40% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 33% 50% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Other 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Other Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 21 11 37. Of those, how many are women? 8 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 8% 420% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? Yes Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? No Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016172 MAURITIUS MEXICO BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 5 N/A 84 5 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 65 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 65 65 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables173 MOLDOVA MONGOLIA REGIONEurope & Central Asia East Asia & Pacific INCOME GROUPLower middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION1,871,412 1,454,615 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 44% 60% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 20% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 20% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Other 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Other Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 6 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016174 MOLDOVA MONGOLIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No Yes Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No Yes Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No Yes Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 126 N/A 1039 120 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A Gov Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A Partially paid 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A 1095 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? Yes Yes 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 57 62 55 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 57 62 55 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No No No No Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo No No Yes No No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables175 MONTENEGRO MOROCCO REGIONEurope & Central Asia Middle East & North Africa INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION314,621 16,930,150 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 52% 27% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota 15% 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota 33% 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 30% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 30% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 7 12 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 9% 4% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No Yes No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016176 MONTENEGRO MOROCCO BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 45 N/A 365 98 3 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A Gov Gov Gov N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A 100% 67% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A 730 90 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 45 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? Yes No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 67 67 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 67 67 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 67 67 60 60 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNoYesNoNoNoNo 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo Yes No Yes Yes No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A Yes 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables177 MOZAMBIQUE MYANMAR REGIONSub-Saharan Africa East Asia & Pacific INCOME GROUPLow income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION13,516,240 27,637,901 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 86% 79% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property No default 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 7 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 1555% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016178 MOZAMBIQUE MYANMAR BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 60 1 N/A 98 15 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Gov Gov N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 70% 70% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 60 N/A N/A 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 60 N/A N/A 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 55 60 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 20 20 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables179 NAMIBIA NEPAL REGIONSub-Saharan Africa South Asia INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Low income FEMALE POPULATION1,207,264 14,536,095 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 56% 83% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 33% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? > 0 40% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Full community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? Yes No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 3 12 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 1% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes No Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016180 NAMIBIA NEPAL BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 1437% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes No Yes No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 N/A N/A 52 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 N/A N/A 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 N/A N/A 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 55 55 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 20 20 88. Are there exceptions? Yes No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No No 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables181 NETHERLANDS NEW ZEALAND REGIONHigh income: OECD High income: OECD INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION8,494,129 2,294,969 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 74% 73% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes No Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Full community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No Yes 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? N/A N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? N/A N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? N/A N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 64% 28% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016182 NETHERLANDS NEW ZEALAND BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 1% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes No N/A Yes Yes N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: Yes Yes Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 112 2 N/A 112 0 0 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 47% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 14 294 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 67 67 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 67 67 65 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? Yes N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No Yes Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables183 NICARAGUA NIGER REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPLower middle income Low income FEMALE POPULATION3,118,592 9,190,551 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 50% 41% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota 15% 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota 15% 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 50% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Other 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Other Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A .. 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No .. 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes .. Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes .. .. Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes .. 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes .. GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 5 7 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 206% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No Yes No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes No Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016184 NICARAGUA NIGER BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 2322% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Ye s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 5 N/A 98 1 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov Emp N/A Emp & Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYesNoYes YesNo No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 21 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables185 NIGERIA NORWAY REGIONSub-Saharan Africa High income: OECD INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION87,630,281 2,564,449 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 49% 76% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota 40% 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 40% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Deferred community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? Yes No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 16 21 37. Of those, how many are women? 3 8 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 2049% 20% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016186 NIGERIA NORWAY BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes No Yes No No N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No No No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 N/A N/A N/A N/A 343 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A N/A N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 50% N/A N/A N/A N/A Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 91 70 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No Yes 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No N/A 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 50 50 67 67 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 50 62 62 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No Yes Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables187 OMAN PAKISTAN REGIONMiddle East & North Africa South Asia INCOME GROUPHigh income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION1,387,214 90,000,515 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 31% 26% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota 17.5% 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota 22% 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? No No No Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? No No Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? N/A 17 37. Of those, how many are women? N/A 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? N/A No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 205% 69% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016188 OMAN PAKISTAN BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 50 N/A N/A 84 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 60 55 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 45 45 50 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 60 60 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No No Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No Yes Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables189 PANAMA PAPUA NEW GUINEA REGIONLatin America & Caribbean East Asia & Pacific INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION1,943,920 3,662,233 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 53% 72% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Deferred community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No Yes 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 29 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 4 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 45% 199% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes No Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016190 PANAMA PAPUA NEW GUINEA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes Yes No N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 42 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 57 62 55 55 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 60 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes Yes Yes Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 21 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables191 PARAGUAY PERU REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION3,432,342 15,349,299 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 59% 69% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? > 0 30% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? > 0 30% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 3 7 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 111% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016192 PARAGUAY PERU BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes Yes No No Yes Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 63 2 N/A 90 4 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 50% 100% N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 21 0 N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 55 65 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 70 70 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No Yes Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 20 20 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables193 PHILIPPINES POLAND REGIONEast Asia & Pacific High income: OECD INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION49,965,757 19,655,977 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 53% 60% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A No 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 2% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 35% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 35% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Full community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Other Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? No Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? Yes No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 15 15 37. Of those, how many are women? 3 4 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 66% 23% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? Yes No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016194 PHILIPPINES POLAND BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes No Yes N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: Yes Yes No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 60 7 N/A 182 14 182 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Gov Gov Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% 100% Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 898 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 30 30 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 67 67 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 62 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 65 65 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes Yes No Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 25 25 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables195 PORTUGAL PUERTO RICO (U.S.) REGIONHigh income: OECD Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION5,358,928 1,841,533 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 70% 41% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 33% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 33% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 13 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 5 4 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 91% 77% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? Yes Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016196 PORTUGAL PUERTO RICO (U.S.) BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No N/A Yes Yes No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No Yes Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: No No Yes Yes No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? N/A N/A 120 56 N/A 0 52. Who pays for such leave? N/A N/A Gov Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? N/A N/A 0 0 N/A 84 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 42 14 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? Yes No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? N/A Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 66 66 67 67 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 66 66 62 62 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 21 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables197 QATAR ROMANIA REGIONMiddle East & North Africa Europe & Central Asia INCOME GROUPHigh income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION532,829 10,214,931 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 52% 57% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes No 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? Yes No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? No Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 7 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 9% 30% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016198 QATAR ROMANIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 50 N/A N/A 126 15 302 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Gov Emp Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 85% 100% Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 0 365 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 30 30 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 60 63 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 40 40 63 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 63 65 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo No No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 16 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables199 RUSSIAN FEDERATION RWANDA REGIONEurope & Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPHigh income Low income FEMALE POPULATION77,505,380 6,190,093 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 69% 88% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota 30% 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota 30% 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Full community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 19 14 37. Of those, how many are women? 3 7 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 11% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016200 RUSSIAN FEDERATION RWANDA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes No Yes Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 140 N/A 1025 84 4 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A Gov Emp Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A Partially paid 60% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A 0 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 60 55 55 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 60 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo No No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? N/A No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? N/A No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 21 21 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables201 SÃO TOMÉ AND PRÍNCIPE SAUDI ARABIA REGIONSub-Saharan Africa Middle East & North Africa INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION100,129 12,378,753 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 48% 21% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes No Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota 20% 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No No 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A No No Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes No Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 5 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 21% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016202 SÃO TOMÉ AND PRÍNCIPE SAUDI ARABIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 90 0 N/A 70 1 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Emp Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 1 N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 62 62 55 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 62 62 55 50 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 55 60 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No No Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes No Yes No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 .. .. 88. Are there exceptions? Yes No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables203 SENEGAL SERBIA REGIONSub-Saharan Africa Europe & Central Asia INCOME GROUPLower middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION7,407,650 3,645,506 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 67% 54% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% 30% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 50% 30% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 5 15 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 6 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 1% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016204 SENEGAL SERBIA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 1903% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 1 N/A 135 N/A 230 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Emp N/A Gov N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% N/A 100% 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 N/A 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 53 53 65 65 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 60 60 65 65 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s N o Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo No No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No No No Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables205 SEYCHELLES SIERRA LEONE REGIONSub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPHigh income Low income FEMALE POPULATION45,040 3,122,940 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION.. 68% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota 42% 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No Yes 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 5 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 136% 31% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016206 SEYCHELLES SIERRA LEONE BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 N/A N/A 84 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp & Gov N/A N/A Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 63 63 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? Yes No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables207 SINGAPORE SLOVAK REPUBLIC REGIONEast Asia & Pacific High income: OECD INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION2,769,370 2,783,544 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 65% 62% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Other Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 13 13 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 4 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 14% 7% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No Yes No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016208 SINGAPORE SLOVAK REPUBLIC BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 105 7 7 238 N/A 899 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Gov Gov Gov N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% Partially paid 65% N/A Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 0 0 N/A 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No Yes 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 62 62 62 62 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 62 62 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 67 67 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 21 21 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables209 SLOVENIA SOUTH AFRICA REGIONHigh income: OECD Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPHigh income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION1,037,434 27,774,550 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 67% 49% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 35% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 40% 50% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Full community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No Yes 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 11 37. Of those, how many are women? 5 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 11% 10% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes No Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016210 SLOVENIA SOUTH AFRICA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No N/A Yes Yes No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No Yes Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 105 30 130 120 3 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Gov Gov Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% 100% 38% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 0 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 30 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 N/A N/A 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 65 65 N/A N/A 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables211 SOUTH SUDAN SPAIN REGIONSub-Saharan Africa High income: OECD INCOME GROUPLow income High income FEMALE POPULATION5,864,318 23,471,223 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION.. 68% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota 40% 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 25% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 25% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 40% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 40% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? No default Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Other Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? Yes No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 12 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 2 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 27% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No Yes Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016212 SOUTH SUDAN SPAIN BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 56 N/A N/A 112 13 0 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Gov Gov N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 0 1095 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? N/A N/A 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? N/A N/A 63 63 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s N o N o Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables213 SRI LANKA ST. KITTS AND NEVIS REGIONSouth Asia Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION10,564,282 .. FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 39% .. ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 11 25 37. Of those, how many are women? 3 14 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 0% 63% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016214 SRI LANKA ST. KITTS AND NEVIS BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 N/A N/A 91 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 65% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 50 55 62 62 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 55 62 62 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables215 ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES REGIONLatin America & Caribbean Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION93,487 54,179 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 69% 61% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes No Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 25 25 37. Of those, how many are women? 14 14 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? Yes Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 25% 83% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016216 ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 91 N/A N/A 91 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 65% N/A N/A 65% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 42 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? Yes No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables217 SUDAN SURINAME REGIONSub-Saharan Africa Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPLower middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION19,318,117 271,427 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 33% 45% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 30% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No No N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? Yes No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? No Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016218 SUDAN SURINAME BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No No No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 56 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No N/A 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 50 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 60 60 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s N o N o Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? Yes No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: No min. No min. 21 21 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables219 SWAZILAND SWEDEN REGIONSub-Saharan Africa High income: OECD INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION641,588 4,859,770 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 45% 79% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? No No Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? No default Deferred community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Husband Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? No N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? No No Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? Yes No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 6 16 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 6 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 37% 5% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? No Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016220 SWAZILAND SWEDEN BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Ye s Ye s Ye s N o N o N /A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 14 N/A N/A 0 10 480 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A N/A Gov Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A N/A 50% Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 70 N/A N/A 98 0 11 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 60 60 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 50 50 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 50 61 61 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A 67 67 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 21 21 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables221 SWITZERLAND SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC REGIONHigh income: OECD Middle East & North Africa INCOME GROUPHigh income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION4,150,985 11,435,605 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 78% 14% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Deferred community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes No Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? N/A 11 37. Of those, how many are women? N/A 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? N/A No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 37% 58% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016222 SWITZERLAND SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes No N/A No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 98 N/A N/A 120 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 59% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 14 N/A N/A 30 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 64 65 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 62 63 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 69 70 65 65 Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes No No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 17 88. Are there exceptions? No Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No Yes Economy Tables223 TAIWAN, CHINA TAJIKISTAN REGIONEast Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia INCOME GROUPHigh income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION.. 4,191,647 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION.. 62% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 25% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Deferred community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 15 7 37. Of those, how many are women? 2 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 15% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016224 TAIWAN, CHINA TAJIKISTAN BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No Yes Yes No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 56 5 180 140 N/A 477.5 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp Gov Gov N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% Partially paid 100% N/A Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 550 0 N/A 547.5 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 65 65 58 63 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 50 58 63 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 65 65 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes Yes No Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables225 TANZANIA THAILAND REGIONSub-Saharan Africa East Asia & Pacific INCOME GROUPLow income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION25,372,041 34,315,295 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 90% 71% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 30% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights 31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? N/A 9 37. Of those, how many are women? N/A 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? N/A No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 174% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? No Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016226 TANZANIA THAILAND BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? N/A 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 3 N/A 90 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Emp & Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 55 55 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 55 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No Yes Yes No Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 20 20 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? No N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? Yes No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables227 TIMOR-LESTE TOGO REGIONEast Asia & Pacific Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPLower middle income Low income FEMALE POPULATION595,879 3,543,062 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 25% 82% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes Yes Yes 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? > 0 No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 33% 50% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 5 9 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No Yes No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016228 TIMOR-LESTE TOGO BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 1735% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 5 N/A 98 2 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Emp & Gov Emp N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? N/A N/A 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? N/A N/A 55 55 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s N o Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 17 17 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? No Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables229 TONGA TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO REGIONEast Asia & Pacific Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPUpper middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION52,748 679,957 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 56% 60% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? No No Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 3 11 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 130% 47% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? No Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016230 TONGA TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No Yes No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: No No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? N/A N/A N/A 98 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? N/A N/A N/A Emp & Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? N/A N/A N/A 61% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? N/A N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No No 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? N/A Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 65 65 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction Other Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No No No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes No 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables231 TUNISIA TURKEY REGIONMiddle East & North Africa Europe & Central Asia INCOME GROUPUpper middle income Upper middle income FEMALE POPULATION5,549,022 38,599,168 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 27% 32% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 50% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 12 17 37. Of those, how many are women? .. 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? .. No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 92% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? Yes No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No No Women, Business and the Law 2016232 TUNISIA TURKEY BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No No No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 30 1 N/A 112 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov Gov N/A Gov N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 67% 100% N/A 67% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 180 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 58 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 60 60 58 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo Yes Yes Yes Yes No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? Yes N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? Yes No Economy Tables233 UGANDA UKRAINE REGIONSub-Saharan Africa Europe & Central Asia INCOME GROUPLow income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION19,370,053 24,467,344 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 77% 63% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes Yes No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? 29% No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? 33% No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? Yes No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 12 18 37. Of those, how many are women? 3 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes No 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 575% N/A PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? No Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016234 UGANDA UKRAINE BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes No No Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 84 4 N/A 126 0 1039 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp Emp N/A Gov N/A Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% 100% N/A 100% N/A Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 0 N/A 0 14 0 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? No Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 55 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 50 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYes Yes Yes No Yes No 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s N o N o N o PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 21 21 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables235 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED KINGDOM REGIONMiddle East & North Africa High income: OECD INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION2,854,292 32,702,700 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 47% 70% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? No N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes No Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes N/A N/A 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? No Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? No Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? Yes No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? No Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No Yes 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? No Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? No Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? No Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? Yes No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 5 N/A 37. Of those, how many are women? 0 N/A 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No N/A Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 64% 37% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No Yes Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? No Yes Women, Business and the Law 2016236 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED KINGDOM BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes Yes No Yes Yes N/A DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No Yes Yes GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes Yes Yes 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 45 N/A N/A 14 14 259 52. Who pays for such leave? Emp N/A N/A Emp & Gov Emp & Gov Emp & Gov 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 90% 18% Partially paid 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 0 91 Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A 0 0 Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No Yes 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? No Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? No Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes No 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No Yes Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 60 60 67 67 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 50 55 67 67 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? No Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo No Yes Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo No No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes No Yes No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? Yes No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? No Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? No No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables237 UNITED STATES URUGUAY REGIONHigh income: OECD Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPHigh income High income FEMALE POPULATION161,907,741 1,766,735 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 66% 67% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No No 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A N/A 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota 33% 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota 33% Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? Yes Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Separation of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Original owner Both must agree Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 9 5 37. Of those, how many are women? 3 0 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? Yes Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? 9% 87% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? Yes No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016238 UNITED STATES URUGUAY BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions Yes Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: Yes Yes No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: No No Yes Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? N/A N/A 0 98 7 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? N/A N/A N/A Gov Gov N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? N/A N/A N/A 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? N/A N/A 84 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? N/A No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 67 67 60 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 62 62 60 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? N/A N/A N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? Yes Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? Yes No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? Yes Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes Yes No Yes No No 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes Yes No Yes No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? Yes Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 18 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? No No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? Yes Yes 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables239 UZBEKISTAN VENEZUELA, RB REGIONEurope & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean INCOME GROUPLower middle income High income FEMALE POPULATION15,453,049 15,387,263 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 51% 55% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? 30% No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? 30% No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? N/A N/A Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? N/A N/A N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes Yes 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No No 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes Yes USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Partial community of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Separate with spousal consent Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes Yes Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes Yes GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No No 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes Yes Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? 7 7 37. Of those, how many are women? 1 3 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? No Yes Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 442% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes Yes 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? Yes Yes 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016240 UZBEKISTAN VENEZUELA, RB BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes No No No DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No No No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No Yes Yes Yes No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 126 N/A 674 182 14 N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A Emp Emp & Gov Emp & Gov N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A Partially paid 100% 100% N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A 365 0 0 N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: 0 0 N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? No No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? No Yes 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes Yes 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? Yes No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 60 55 60 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 60 55 60 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 55 60 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes Yes 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No Yes 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousYe s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s Ye s 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo No No Yes Yes Yes PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? No Yes 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? No N/A 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No Yes Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? No Yes 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? No Yes 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? No Yes 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? No Yes 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No Yes 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? No Yes 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? No Yes Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: No No No Yes Yes Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: No No No Yes Yes Yes 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No Yes 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 18 17 18 18 88. Are there exceptions? Yes Yes 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes Yes Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes Yes 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A N/A 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No No 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No No Economy Tables241 VIETNAM WEST BANK AND GAZA REGIONEast Asia & Pacific Middle East & North Africa INCOME GROUPLower middle income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION45,889,400 2,115,138 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 79% 16% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? Yes Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? Yes Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A No N/A 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes Yes Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota 20% 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota > 0 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose where to live in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No Yes 20. Can a woman confer citizenship to children in the same way as a man? Yes Yes No No 21. Can a woman be “head of household” in the same way as a man? Yes Yes N/A N/A Division of responsibility within marriage22. Do spouses have equal rights to convey citizenship? Yes No 23. Are wives required to obey their husbands? No Yes 24. Must spouses jointly financially maintain the family? Yes No USING PROPERTY Marital property regime25. What is the default marital property regime? Partial community of property Separation of property 26. Who administers marital property? Both must agree Original owner Protecting a wife’s interests27. If the husband administers property, is spousal consent required for major transactions? N/A N/A 28. Are there special provisions governing the marital home? No No 29. Does the law provide for valuation of nonmonetary contributions? Yes No Property rightsMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried30. Do men and women have equal ownership rights to property? Yes Yes Yes Yes Inheritance rights31. Do sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights? Yes No 32. Do female and male surviving spouses have equal inheritance rights? Yes No GOING TO COURT Equality of access33. Are customary law courts recognized? No No 34. Are personal law courts recognized? No Yes 35. Is a woman’s testimony afforded equal weight to that of a man? Yes No Judicial representation36. How many justices are on the constitutional court? N/A 9 37. Of those, how many are women? N/A 1 38. Is the Chief Justice a woman? N/A No Efficiency of procedure39. Is there a small claims court/fast track procedure? No Yes 40. If yes, what is the maximum amount (%GNI/capita)? N/A 150% PROVIDING INCENTIVES TO WORK Personal income tax41. Are childcare payments tax deductible? No No Men Women Men Women42. Are there tax deductions or credits specific to men/women? No No No No Childcare and education43. Is childcare subsidized or publicly provided? Yes No 44. Is primary education free and compulsory? Yes Yes Financial support and care45. Does the government provide a child allowance to parents? No No 46. Must employers provide leave to care for sick relatives? Yes No Women, Business and the Law 2016242 VIETNAM WEST BANK AND GAZA BUILDING CREDIT Credit agencies47. Minimum loan amount covered by credit agencies (%GNI/capita)? 0% 0% 48. Do the following provide information to credit agencies: Retailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutionsRetailers UtilitiesMicrofinance institutions No No Yes Yes Yes Yes DiscriminationMarital StatusGenderMarital StatusGender49. Is discrimination in access to credit prohibited based on: No Yes No No GETTING A JOB Parental benefitsMaternity Paternity Parental Maternity Paternity Parental50. Does the law mandate the following types of leave: Yes No No Yes No No 51. How much of such leave is paid (days)? 180 N/A N/A 70 N/A N/A 52. Who pays for such leave? Gov N/A N/A Emp N/A N/A 53. What % of wages are paid? 100% N/A N/A 100% N/A N/A 54. How much of such leave is unpaid (days)? 0 N/A N/A 0 N/A N/A Mother Father Mother Father55. In unpaid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A 56. In paid parental leave is there a portion that must be taken by the: N/A N/A N/A N/A Workplace protections57. Does the law mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value? Yes No 58. Does the law mandate nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring? Yes No 59. Is it prohibited for prospective employers to ask about family status? No No 60. Is dismissal of pregnant workers prohibited? Yes Yes 61. Are mothers guaranteed an equivalent position after maternity leave? Yes No 62. Are nursing mothers entitled to nursing breaks? Yes Yes 63. Are parents entitled to flexible/part-time schedules? No No Retirement & pensionsWomen Men Women Men64. When can one retire and get full benefits? 55 60 N/A N/A 65. When can one retire and get partial benefits? 55 60 N/A N/A 66. What is the mandatory retirement age? 55 60 N/A N/A Working hours and industry restrictions67. Can women and men work the same night hours? Yes No 68. Can women and men do the same jobs? No No 69. Can women work in these types of jobs in the same way as men: Hazardous Morally inappropriate Arduous Hazardous Morally inappropriate ArduousNo Yes No Yes Yes Yes 70. Can women work in these occupations in the same way as men:Mining Factories Construction Other Mining Factories Construction OtherNo Yes No No No Yes Yes No 71. Can women work on these tasks in the same way as men: Metalwork Heavy lifting Other Metalwork Heavy lifting OtherNo No No No Yes No PROTECTING WOMEN FROM VIOLENCE Domestic violence72. Is there domestic violence legislation? Yes No 73. If not, are there aggravated penalties for offenses between spouses/family members? N/A No 74. Are there clear criminal penalties for domestic violence? No No Physical Sexual Emotional Economic Physical Sexual Emotional Economic75. Does domestic violence legislation cover the following abuse: Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No 76. Does domestic violence legislation protect family members? Yes No 77. Does domestic violence legislation protect former spouses? Yes No 78. Does domestic violence legislation protect unmarried intimate partners? Yes No 79. Do protection orders for domestic violence exist? Yes No 80. Do protection orders for domestic violence remove the perpetrator from the home? No No 81. Do protection orders for domestic violence prohibit contact? Yes No 82. Is there a specialized court/procedure for domestic violence? Yes No Sexual harassmentLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penaltiesLegislationCivil remediesCriminal penalties 83. To protect against sexual harassment, do the following exist: Yes No No Yes No Yes 84. Do the following exist concerning sexual harassment in employment: Yes No No No No No 85. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in education? No No 86. Is there legislation on sexual harassment in public places? No No Child and early marriageBoys Girls Boys Girls87. What is the legal age of marriage for: 20 18 16 15 88. Are there exceptions? No No 89. Is child marriage void or prohibited? Yes Yes 90. Is child marriage penalized? Yes No Marital rape91. Is marital rape explicitly criminalized? Yes No 92. If not, can a wife or partner file a complaint? N/A No 93. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they are married to the victim? No Yes 94. Are rape perpetrators exempt if they marry the victim? No Yes Economy Tables243 YEMEN, REP. ZAMBIA REGIONMiddle East & North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa INCOME GROUPLower middle income Lower middle income FEMALE POPULATION12,382,833 7,530,526 FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 26% 73% ACCESSING INSTITUTIONS Constitutional rights1. Does the constitution contain a clause on nondiscrimination? No Yes 2. If yes, does it mention gender? N/A Yes 3. Does the constitution contain a clause on equality? Yes Yes Recognized Invalid Recognized Invalid 4. Is customary law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? No N/A Yes No 5. Is personal law recognized / invalid if it violates provisions on nondiscrimination or equality? Yes No No N/A Quotas6. What are the quotas for women on corporate boards? No quota No quota 7. What are the quotas for women in parliament? No quota No quota 8. What are the quotas for women in local government? No quota No quota 9. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for parliament? No quota No quota 10. What are the quotas for women on candidate lists for local government? No quota No quota Rights of married and unmarried womenMarried Unmarried Married Unmarried11. Can a woman apply for a passport in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 12. Can a woman apply for a national ID card in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 13. Can a woman travel outside the country in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Can a woman travel outside her home in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 15. Can a woman get a job in the same way as a man? No Yes Yes Yes 16. Can a woman sign a contract in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 17. Can a woman register a business in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 18. Can a woman open a bank account in the same way as a man? Yes Yes Yes Yes 19. Can a woman choose whe